The Maturity of Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) and Its Implications for Innovation
2. Research Framework of Automatic Identification Systems (AIS)
2.1. Technical Specifications and Algorithms
- Static, i.e., entered into the system on installation: Maritime Mobile Service Identity (MMSI), call sign and name, IMO number, length and beam, a type of ship and, location of electronic position fixing system (EPFS) antenna.
- Dynamic, i.e., navigational status and data from ship sensors: ship’s position with accuracy indication and integrity status, position timestamp in coordinated universal time (UTC), course over ground (COG), speed over ground (SOG), heading, navigational status, and rate of turn (ROT).
- Voyage-related (manually entered and updated during the voyage): ship’s draught, hazardous cargo (type: dangerous goods/harmful substances/marine pollutants), destination and estimated time of arrival (ETA), and route plan (waypoints).
- Safety-related: free format, short text messages that can be manually entered, addressed either a specific addressee or broadcast to all ships and shore stations.
2.2. Policy Regulation and Governance
- IMO Maritime Safety Committee (MSC), Resolution MSC.74(69): Recommendation on Performance Standards for Universal AIS;
- IMO Assembly (A), Resolution A.1106(29): Revised guidelines for the onboard operational use of shipborne AIS;
- IMO Maritime Safety Committee, Resolution MSC.347(91): Recommends that administrations should take the steps necessary to ensure the integrity of the radio channels used for AIS in their waters;
- IMO Maritime Safety Committee, Marine Safety Circular 1252: Guidelines on annual testing of AIS;
- IMO Maritime Safety Committee, Marine Safety Circular 1473: Policy on use of AIS aids to navigation (AIS AtoN);
- IMO Maritime Safety Committee, Safety of Navigation Circular 227: Guidelines for the installation of a shipborne AIS;
- IMO Maritime Safety Committee, Safety of Navigation Circular 244: Guidance on the use of the UN/LOCODE in the destination field in AIS messages;
- IMO Safety Maritime Committee, Safety of Navigation Circular 243/Rev.1: Guidelines for the presentation of navigational-related symbols, terms, and abbreviations;
- IMO Safety Maritime Committee, Safety of Navigation Circular 289: Guidance on the use of AIS application-specific messages;
- IMO Safety Maritime Committee, Safety of Navigation Circular 290: Guidance for the presentation and display of AIS application-specific messages information.
- The White House Cross Agency priority goal for leveraging data as a strategic asset ;
- Executive Order 13480: Ocean policy to advance the economic, security, and environmental interests of the United States, and its efforts to publicly release maritime data ;
- The Geospatial Data Act of 2018 ;
- The Foundations for Evidence-Based Policymaking Act .
2.3. The Pathway of the AIS Data
3. A View of Data Science and Informatics
4. Review of Algorithms and Applications
4.1. Waterways Management
4.2. Safety and Security
4.2.1. Safety and Accident Prevention Applications
4.3. Marine and Environmental Planning
4.4. Natural Resources Management
4.5. Freight Management and Economics
Conflicts of Interest
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|Federal Agency||Waterways Management||Waterways Safety and Security||Marine and Environmental Planning||Natural Resources Management||Freight Management and Economy|
|BOEM||Identify the historic patters and usage of offshore areas for safety and risk analysis||Inform site decisions, emission inventories|
Evaluate development plan
|Support offshore energy development|
|BTS||High-resolution of vessel traffic||Timely statistics on port and terminal usage Analyzing dwell times|
|Environment Protection Agency (EPA)||Animal protection|
Estimate exhaust emission
|Wind Energy||Emission estimation|
|MARAD||Visualize the locations and routes of vessels for security||Fisheries||Port management|
|NOAA||Monitoring water ways for emergency||Environmental protection||Fisheries & energy management|
|The Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation (SLSDC)||Track the position and course of commercial maritime traffic||Monitor the speed of commercial maritime vessel|
|USACE||Monitor waterway||Assist communication of safety information||Channel management||Monitor lock performance|
|USCG||Vessel traffic monitoring||Collision avoidance||Assist water planning|
|Categories||General User||Power User|
|Ease of Use||Interested in standard analytical products (track line, vessel density map), less intimate with technical AIS data analysis functions||Advancements beyond the scope of recommendations and required skills need to be provided|
|Reliability||Unable to validate various data sources.||Storage of data agencies. Various data agencies keep AIS data independently with varying levels of management.|
|Informative||Limited AIS fields, providing only a period of less than one year, having a large time interval between data readings, and describing only geographically limited areas||USACE has a short-term, 45-day temporary archive for internal use of its AIS data. NAVCEN stores three years of AIS data in a format accessible through HDR.|
|Affordability||Only limited information provided by government agencies; expensive commercial data||Purchasing AIS data from commercial data vendors to meet the needs of their agencies|
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Lee, E.; Mokashi, A.J.; Moon, S.Y.; Kim, G. The Maturity of Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) and Its Implications for Innovation. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7, 287. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7090287
Lee E, Mokashi AJ, Moon SY, Kim G. The Maturity of Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) and Its Implications for Innovation. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2019; 7(9):287. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7090287Chicago/Turabian Style
Lee, EunSu, Amit J. Mokashi, Sang Young Moon, and GeunSub Kim. 2019. "The Maturity of Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) and Its Implications for Innovation" Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 7, no. 9: 287. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7090287