Hydrate decomposition is an important potential cause of marine geological disasters. It is of great significance to understand the dynamic relationship between hydrate reservoir system and the overlying seabed damage caused by its decomposition. The purpose of this study is to understand the instability and destruction mechanisms of a hydrated seabed using physical simulations and to discuss the effects of different geological conditions on seabed stability. By applying pressurized gas to the low permeability silt layer, the excess pore pressure caused by the decomposition of hydrate is simulated and the physical appearance process of the overlying seabed damage is monitored. According to the test results, two conclusions were drawn in this study: (1) Under the action of excess pore pressure caused by hydrate decomposition, typical phenomena of overlying seabed damage include pockmark deformation and shear–slip failure. In shallower or steeper strata, shear-slip failure occurs in the slope. The existence of initial crack in the stratum is the main trigger cause. In thicker formations or gentler slopes, the surface of the seabed has a collapse deformation feature. The occurrence of cracks in the deep soil layer is the main failure mechanism. (2) It was determined that the thickness and slope of the seabed, among other factors, affect the type and extent of seabed damage.
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