Acoustics is important for all underwater systems for object detection, classification, surveillance systems, and communication. However, underwater acoustics is often difficult to understand, and even the most carefully conducted measurements may often give unexpected results. The use of theory and acoustic modelling in support of measurements is very important since theory tends to be better behaved and more consistent than experiments, and useful to acquire better knowledge about the physics principle. This paper, having a tutorial flair, concerns the use of ray modelling and in particular eigenray analysis to obtain increased knowledge and understanding of underwater acoustic propagation.
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