The adoption of the global positioning system (GPS) within the marine industry has revolutionized the marine operations by condensing the navigation of a vessel into an integrated bridge system (IBS). An IBS acts as the main command and control of a vessel as it interconnects various digital devices used for navigation in open seas and is also connected to other on-board systems of a vessel e.g., navigation and control, propulsion and machinery management system, cargo management system and safety management system, core infra structure systems, administrative and crew welfare systems, etc. Additionally, it also provides a gateway to the Internet, thus, leaving not only an IBS vulnerable but also all the on-board systems vulnerable to cyber-attacks. We, in this study, have collected historical evidences about various vulnerable digital components in an IBS to better understand the security and privacy challenges associated with the vulnerable IBS components. Our study is the first of its kind that involves collection and review of 59 historical accidents reported in literature and has highlighted various vulnerability patterns, their causes and consequences, with geographical as well as temporal relationships for different vulnerable IBS components. The vulnerabilities of IBS components were reportedly exploited using various cyber-attack techniques e.g., jamming, spoofing, hijacking, etc. This review paper also forms a baseline for future work on vulnerabilities of IBS and maritime cyber security.
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