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J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7010005

Role of Upper-Flow-Regime Bedforms Emplaced by Sediment Gravity Flows in the Evolution of Deltas

1
Computation Science Research Center, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA
2
Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy
3
Institute for Geology, Leibniz University Hannover, 30167 Hannover, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 November 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 27 December 2018 / Published: 4 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sediment Transport under Combined Waves and Currents)
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Abstract

Upper-flow-regime bedforms and their role in the evolution of marine and lacustrine deltas are not well understood. Wave-like undulations on delta foresets are by far the most commonly reported bedforms on deltas and it will take time before many of these features get identified as upper-flow-regime bedforms. This study aims at: (1) Providing a summary of our knowledge to date on deltaic bedforms emplaced by sediment gravity flows; (2) illustrating that these features are most likely transitional upper-flow-regime bedforms; and (3) using field case studies of two markedly different deltas in order to examine their role in the evolution of deltas. The study combines numerical analysis with digital elevation models, outcrop, borehole, and high-resolution seismic data. The Mazzarrà river delta in the Gulf of Patti, Italy, is selected to show that upper-flow-regime bedforms in gullies can be linked to the onset, growth, and evolution of marine deltas via processes of gully initiation, filling, and maintenance. Ice-marginal lacustrine deltas in Germany are selected as they illustrate the importance of unconfined upper-flow-regime bedforms in the onset and evolution of distinct delta morphologies under different lake-level trends. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine and lacustrine deltas; transitional upper-flow-regime bedforms; cyclic steps; antidunes; delta evolution; confined or unconfined setting; foreset-bottomset transition; gullies marine and lacustrine deltas; transitional upper-flow-regime bedforms; cyclic steps; antidunes; delta evolution; confined or unconfined setting; foreset-bottomset transition; gullies
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kostic, S.; Casalbore, D.; Chiocci, F.; Lang, J.; Winsemann, J. Role of Upper-Flow-Regime Bedforms Emplaced by Sediment Gravity Flows in the Evolution of Deltas. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7, 5.

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