Next Article in Journal
The Implications of Oil Exploration off the Gulf Coast of Florida
Previous Article in Journal
Seasonal Variability of Wind Sea and Swell Waves Climate along the Canary Current: The Local Wind Effect
Article Menu
Issue 2 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6020029

Wave-Created Mud Suspensions: A Theoretical Study

1
College of Science & Engineering, Flinders University, PO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia
2
Department of Geology, The Colorado College, 14 E. Cache La Poudre, Colorado Springs, CO 80903, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sediment Transport under Combined Waves and Currents)
Full-Text   |   PDF [29496 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

We studied wave-created high-density mud suspensions (fluid mud) using a one-dimensional water column (1DV) model that includes k-ε turbulence closure at a high vertical resolution with a vertical grid spacing of 1 mm. The k-ε turbulence model includes two sediment-related dissipation terms associated with vertical density stratification and viscous drag of flows around sediment particles. To this end, the calibrated model reproduces the key characteristics (maximum concentration and thickness) of fluid mud layers created in laboratory experiments over a large range of wave velocities from 10 to 55 cm/s. The findings demonstrate that the equilibrium near-bed mud concentration, Cb, is solely determined from the balance between erosion and deposition fluxes, whereas the thickness of the fluid mud layer is mainly controlled by sediment-induced density stratification, which dissipates turbulence and hence eliminates turbulent sediment diffusivity at the top of the fluid mud layer, the lutocline. Our model stands in contrast to those that suggest that upward sediment diffusion is close to zero at the interface between the fluid mud layer and the overlying fluid. Instead, our model suggests that the upward diffusive flux of fluid mud flows peak at the lutocline and is compensated for enhanced settling fluxes just above it. Our model findings also support the existence of the gelling-ignition process, which is critical for the development of fluid mud beds in modern sedimentary environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: fluid mud; suspended sediment dynamics; gelling point; numerical modelling; theory fluid mud; suspended sediment dynamics; gelling point; numerical modelling; theory
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kämpf, J.; Myrow, P.M. Wave-Created Mud Suspensions: A Theoretical Study. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6, 29.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. EISSN 2077-1312 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top