# DDES of Wetted and Cavitating Marine Propeller for CHA Underwater Noise Assessment

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Flow Solution

#### 2.1. Governing Equations

#### 2.2. Finite-Volume Form

#### 2.3. Solution Algorithm

#### 2.4. Turbulence Modelling

#### 2.5. Mass and Energy Transfer

## 3. Acoustic Solution

## 4. Computational Case

#### 4.1. CFD: Numerical Setup, Grid, and Boundary Conditions

#### 4.2. CHA: Numerical Setup, Grid, and Boundary Conditions

## 5. Results

#### 5.1. Validation and Cavitation Observations

#### 5.2. Wake Flow Structures

#### 5.3. Acoustic Excitations

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

BPF | Blade passing frequency |

CFD | Computational fluid dynamics |

CHA | Computational hydroacoustics |

DES | Detached eddy simulation |

DDES | Delayed detached eddy simulation |

DNS | Direct numerical simulation |

EARSM | Explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model |

EFD | Experimental fluid dynamics |

FEM | Finite element method |

LE | Leading edge |

LES | Large eddy simulation |

MUSCL | Monotonic upstream-centred scheme for conservation laws |

PANS | Partially averaged Navier–Stokes |

PPTC | Potsdam propeller test case |

RANS | Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes |

SST | Shear stress transport |

TE | Trailing edge |

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**Figure 1.**Lighthill surface mesh around the propeller blades and hub, and Lighthill volume mesh around the propeller, and in the wake of the propeller.

**Figure 2.**Photographs of the Potsdam propeller test case (PPTC) propeller [51].

**Figure 7.**Comparison of global propeller performance characteristics. CFD: computational fluid dynamics; EFD: experimental fluid dynamics.

**Figure 12.**Comparison of the cavitation patterns near the blade surfaces with the cavitation sketches according to observations made in the experiments, cf. Ref. [37].

**Figure 14.**Surface restricted streamlines and non-dimensional pressure coefficients on the suction side of the blade surface. In the cavitating case, the iso-surface of void fraction value of 0.1 is shown as transparent grey.

**Figure 15.**Distribution of the pressure coefficient near the propeller on the cut plane y = 0. In the cavitating case, the iso-surface of the void fraction $\alpha =0.1$ is coloured light grey.

**Figure 16.**Distribution of non-dimensional velocity near the propeller on the cut plane y = 0. In the cavitating case, the iso-surface of the void fraction $\alpha $ = 0.1 is coloured by light blue.

**Figure 17.**Vortical flow structures visualized near the propeller by means of the Q criterion. The iso-surface of the Q criterion is coloured by helicity.

**Figure 18.**Distribution of the acoustic source term based on delayed detached eddy simulation (DDES) near the propeller on the cut plane $y=0$. In the cavitating case, the iso-surface of the void fraction $\alpha =0.1$ is coloured by light blue.

**Figure 19.**Vortical flow structures visualized with the Q criterion and acoustic source term distributions in the propeller wake. The Q criterion is coloured by helicity. The boxed figure in the upper right corner shows the acoustic source term distribution on the plane $x/D=0.5$.

Diameter $(\mathsf{m})$ | 0.250 |

Pitch ratio at $r/R=0.7$ | 1.635 |

Chord at $r/R=0.7$ | 0.10417 |

Expanded area ratio | 0.779 |

Skew ${(}^{\circ})$ | 18.837 |

Hub ratio | 0.300 |

Number of blades | 5 |

Rotation | Right-handed |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Viitanen, V.M.; Hynninen, A.; Sipilä, T.; Siikonen, T.
DDES of Wetted and Cavitating Marine Propeller for CHA Underwater Noise Assessment. *J. Mar. Sci. Eng.* **2018**, *6*, 56.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6020056

**AMA Style**

Viitanen VM, Hynninen A, Sipilä T, Siikonen T.
DDES of Wetted and Cavitating Marine Propeller for CHA Underwater Noise Assessment. *Journal of Marine Science and Engineering*. 2018; 6(2):56.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6020056

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Viitanen, Ville M., Antti Hynninen, Tuomas Sipilä, and Timo Siikonen.
2018. "DDES of Wetted and Cavitating Marine Propeller for CHA Underwater Noise Assessment" *Journal of Marine Science and Engineering* 6, no. 2: 56.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6020056