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Seasonal and Spatial Distribution of Soil Trace Elements around Kitchener Drain in the Northern Nile Delta, Egypt

1
Faculty of Agriculture, Soil and Water Department, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh 33516, Egypt
2
Soils, Water and Environment Research Institute (SWERI), ARC, Sakha, Kafr El-Sheikh 33516, Egypt
3
Central Laboratory of Environmental Studies, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh 33516, Egypt
4
Department of Natural Sciences, Dickinson State University, Dickinson, ND 58601, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agriculture 2019, 9(7), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9070152
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 7 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
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Abstract

The pollution of agricultural soils, water and plants by trace elements (TEs) in the Nile Delta Region, Egypt, is of great importance. This study aimed to investigate the spatial and seasonal variation of some TEs in the agricultural area adjacent to Kitchener Drain and to evaluate the ecological risk posed by these elements using six indices. Soil and plant samples were collected from seven sites close to the drain, while water samples were collected from the corresponding sites inside the drain during three seasons (winter, spring and fall). The results showed that all studied TEs in the soil varied seasonally and spatially among the locations around the drain. Most of the studied elements in the soil were higher in the southern and middle area around the drain. All studied elements in the soil were also higher in the winter than other seasons. Nickel and lead were almost non-detected during all seasons in plant tissues, while other elements were higher in the winter than other seasons. In contrast to the soil and plant tissues, water samples demonstrated lower or non-detected levels of TEs. The results also indicated that the values for the risk assessment indices differed among the studied TEs. Therefore, there is a risk of increasing the concentration of some metals in the study area due to anthropogenic pollution from the adjacent polluted drain through irrigation with contaminated water and spreading of contaminated dredged materials on agricultural fields. View Full-Text
Keywords: spatial variation; seasonal variation; ecological risk assessment; pollution; northern Nile Delta spatial variation; seasonal variation; ecological risk assessment; pollution; northern Nile Delta
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Aitta, A.; El-Ramady, H.; Alshaal, T.; El-Henawy, A.; Shams, M.; Talha, N.; Elbehiry, F.; Brevik, E.C. Seasonal and Spatial Distribution of Soil Trace Elements around Kitchener Drain in the Northern Nile Delta, Egypt. Agriculture 2019, 9, 152.

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