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The Influence of Chemical, Organic and Biological Fertilizers on Agrobiological and Antioxidant Properties of Syrian Cephalaria (Cephalaria Syriaca L.)

1
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia 5756151818, Iran
2
Department of Food Technology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agriculture 2019, 9(6), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9060122
Received: 24 March 2019 / Revised: 29 May 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 10 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food for Future)
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Abstract

Since chemical fertilizers pollute soil, water and crops, conscientious agricultural producers seek alternatives to chemical fertilizers. Biological fertilizers are considered a reliable alternative for improving soil productivity and plant growth in sustainable agriculture. The response of some agrobiological and antioxidant properties of Syrian cephalaria (Cephalaria syriaca L.) to different fertilizer sources was explored in an experiment which included: (i) mycorrhiza + manure; (ii) mycorrhiza + vermicompost; (iii) mycorrhiza + Azotobacter; (iv) mycorrhiza + chemical fertilizer; (v) mycorrhiza; and (vi) control. The results showed that the highest seed yield, biological yield, oil percentage yield, were observed in plants treated with mycorrhiza + vermicompost, whereas the highest 1000-seed weight was obtained from the application of mycorrhiza + manure. With respect to photosynthesizing pigments, the application of mycorrhiza + vermicompost increased chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid content as well as total phenols, total flavonoids and DPPH antioxidant activity as compared to control (unfertilized) plants. The mixed application of different fertilizer sources influenced the uptake of trace elements (Fe, Zn and Cu) optimally. In the light of the obtained results for the agrobiological and antioxidant properties of Syrian cephalaria, in most of the measured traits, there is no significant difference between manure, vermicompost and chemical fertilizers in combination with mycorrhiza. Hence the use of organic and biological inputs instead of chemical fertilizer for improving crop efficiency and quality with the aim of alleviating pollution and accomplishing sustainable agriculture is highly encouraging. View Full-Text
Keywords: manure; mycorrhiza; oil; total phenols; trace elements manure; mycorrhiza; oil; total phenols; trace elements
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Rahimi, A.; Siavash Moghaddam, S.; Ghiyasi, M.; Heydarzadeh, S.; Ghazizadeh, K.; Popović-Djordjević, J. The Influence of Chemical, Organic and Biological Fertilizers on Agrobiological and Antioxidant Properties of Syrian Cephalaria (Cephalaria Syriaca L.). Agriculture 2019, 9, 122.

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