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Article

On the Evolution of Trade and Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standards: The Role of Trade Agreements

Department of Science of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Foggia, via Napoli 25, 71121 Foggia, Italy
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Agriculture 2019, 9(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9010002
Received: 25 November 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 19 December 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agriculture Policies: Experiences and Challenges)
Trade agreements and trade measures are policy instruments thought to favour trade by providing a degree of harmonisation among members. We analyse how the agri-food trade and the incidence of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standards (SPSs) have evolved within countries sharing agreements. We examine, through a regression discontinuity design, whether the approval of agreements affects the evolution of trade and SPSs over time, and quantify the trade effects of SPSs. We also provide differences before and after the introduction of agreements, and among the most regulated agri-food products. Findings show that trade agreements tend to favour the increase of trade and the reduction of policy measures between members. However, regulation inequalities exist across trade agreements covering different geo-economic areas: after the approval of agreements, the existence and the importance of SPSs become relevant among developing countries, whereas the pervasiveness of SPSs becomes less stringent between developed and developing countries. Our analyses also prove that trade agreements and trade measures are trade-enhancing only at aggregate level: product-specific analyses show that cereal is the only sector that benefits from the joint influence of trade agreements and SPSs. The harmonisation of SPSs within agreements may be determinant in avoiding distortions in favour of members. View Full-Text
Keywords: agri-food trade; non-tariff measure; regional trade agreement; regression discontinuity design; policy agri-food trade; non-tariff measure; regional trade agreement; regression discontinuity design; policy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Santeramo, F.G.; Guerrieri, V.; Lamonaca, E. On the Evolution of Trade and Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standards: The Role of Trade Agreements. Agriculture 2019, 9, 2. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9010002

AMA Style

Santeramo FG, Guerrieri V, Lamonaca E. On the Evolution of Trade and Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standards: The Role of Trade Agreements. Agriculture. 2019; 9(1):2. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9010002

Chicago/Turabian Style

Santeramo, Fabio G.; Guerrieri, Valentina; Lamonaca, Emilia. 2019. "On the Evolution of Trade and Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standards: The Role of Trade Agreements" Agriculture 9, no. 1: 2. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9010002

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