Next Article in Journal
How Does Water-Stressed Corn Respond to Potassium Nutrition? A Shoot-Root Scale Approach Study under Controlled Conditions
Previous Article in Journal
Biomass and Biogas Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) Grown under Artificial Shading
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Basic Leucine Zipper (bZIP) Transcription Factor Family: Response to Salinity Stress in Fertilized and Symbiotic N2-Fixing Plants
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Agriculture 2018, 8(11), 179;

Phylogeny and Expression of NADPH Oxidases during Symbiotic Nodule Formation

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University, Aarhus C 8000, Denmark
Departamento de Biología Molecular de Plantas, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, UNAM, Cuernavaca 62271, Morelos, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 10 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Legume-rhizobia Symbiosis: Current Knowledge and Future Prospects)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1191 KB, uploaded 16 November 2018]   |  


The mutualistic interaction between gram-negative soil bacteria and the roots of legumes leads to the establishment of nodules, where atmospheric nitrogen is fixed. Nodulation is a multistep process with numerous essential players. Among these are reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are mainly generated by Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADPH) oxidases. In plants, these enzymes are known as respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOHs). In legumes, these proteins are encoded by a multigene family with members that are differentially expressed in various tissues and organs at distinct developmental stages. RBOHs have critical roles at several stages of nodulation: in the early signaling pathway triggered by nodulation factors in the root hairs, during both the progression of infection threads and nodule ontogeny, and in nitrogen fixation and senescence. Data from the literature along with the analysis conducted here imply that legumes use different RBOHs for different stages of nodulation; these RBOHs belong to the same phylogenetic subgroup, even though they are not strictly orthologous. Accordingly, the regulation of activity of a given RBOH during the nodulation process probably varies among legumes. View Full-Text
Keywords: legume nodulation; RBOHs; ROS; symbiotic signaling legume nodulation; RBOHs; ROS; symbiotic signaling

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Montiel, J.; Fonseca-García, C.; Quinto, C. Phylogeny and Expression of NADPH Oxidases during Symbiotic Nodule Formation. Agriculture 2018, 8, 179.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Agriculture EISSN 2077-0472 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top