# Optimization of Potato Planter Soil Lifting Device Based on TRIZ Theory

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Agronomic Requirements

#### 2.2. Principle of Operation

#### 2.3. Issues to Be Addressed

#### 2.4. Application of TRIZ in Design

#### 2.5. Innovative Design of Soil Extraction Shovel Based on “Contradiction Analysis”

- q
_{0}is the amount of soil extraction; - v is the forward speed of the unit;
- $\Delta t$ is the working time of the unit;
- b
_{0}is the width of the shovel surface of the soil extraction shovel; - H is the depth of soil extraction.

- P is the force required to move the earth extraction shovel to dig up the soil;
- R is the reaction force of the earth extraction shovel on the soil;
- $\theta $ is the inclination angle of the shovel;
- $\mu $ is the coefficient of friction of the soil on the earth extraction shovel.
- G is the acceleration of gravity.
- T is the friction of the shovel on the soil.

#### 2.6. Innovative Design of Scraper Lifting Device Based on “Object Field Analysis”

_{2}—is applied. Therefore balancing the soil gravity (harmful) requires the introduction of a force in the opposite direction to the soil gravity, thus eliminating its detrimental effect, so the object field model of the solution is shown in Figure 9b, i.e., the supporting force F

_{N}. Combined with the specifics of this system and evaluating the solution according to the dimensions of technical difficulty, reliability, desirability, and economy, the final solution is presented—change from the original clockwise rotation of the main wheel (Figure 10a) to counterclockwise rotation, i.e., change the conveyor from the original upper scraping type to the lower scraping type, as shown in Figure 10b.

- x is the horizontal displacement of the scraper end;
- y is the vertical displacement of the scraper end;
- r is the radius of the driven wheel;
- h is the height of the scraper;
- ${v}^{\prime}$ is the speed of the ascending chain;
- v is the forward speed of the unit;
- $\varphi $ is the turning angle of the scraper.

## 3. Simulation Test

#### 3.1. Discrete Element Modeling

^{3}, the shear modulus is 1.0 × 10

^{7}Pa, and the contact model between soil particles is Hertz-Xtra, which is the same as that in the simulation. The Hertz–Mindlin with bonding model was used to simulate the bonding between soil particles. To ensure that the simulation is carried out accurately, it is also necessary to set the contact parameters between soil and soil and between steel and soil particles, referring to the literature [16,17,18]. The bonding parameters for the simulated model contact are shown in Table 4.

#### 3.2. Multi-Body Dynamics Modeling

#### 3.3. Simulation Tests and Results

#### 3.4. Analysis of Simulation Test Results

## 4. Test Validation

^{−2}potato seedling strip mulching planting machine, soil moisture content tester, tape measure, balance, stopwatch, tachometer, etc. The test site is shown in Figure 24. The length of the soil trough is 10 m, the width is 1.2 m, and the maximum traction force of the soil trough truck is 15,000 N, which can realize stepless speed regulation in the speed range of 0.3–9 km/h. The power of the planting machine is obtained from the soil tanker, and the power is transmitted to the prime mover of the mechanism through the belt drive and chain drive, with a total transmission ratio of 1:30. According to the required speed of planting, the speed of the soil tanker is set at 1 m/s, and the test soil is yellow sheep’s soil, with a soil moisture content of 13.2–15.9%, a soil capacity of 1300 kg/m

^{3}, and a soil solidity of less than 0.16 MPa. Under the working conditions, with reference to GB/T 25417-2010 [24] “Technical conditions of potato planting machine”, NY/T 1415-2007 [25] “Technical specification for quality evaluation of potato planting machine”, NY/T 987-2006 [26] “Quality of film spreading and hole seeding machine operation”, and relevant requirements of agricultural machinery test methods, the probability of congestion and the amount of soil cover on the entire film surface are determined.

_{z}(times), the number of times of congestion in the test process n

_{yt}(times), and the probability of planting machine congestion n (%) is calculated as follows:

_{1}is the average value of the soil covering quantity of the planter, kg, m

_{0}is the weight calculated according to the standard, kg.

## 5. Conclusions

- (1)
- Using TRIZ theory to carry out “contradiction analysis” on the soil extraction shovel and putting forward a structural form that can realize the effective coupling of multi-schemes according to the characteristics of the scraper lifting and transporting chain-type film mulching device provides a guarantee for the smoothness, high efficiency, and reliability of the potato planting machine’s operation process. Based on the “object field analysis”, the cause-and-effect analysis of the scraper lifting device, through the invention of the principle of the final solution, improves the smoothness and economy of the whole machine and solves the problem of poor lubrication of the sprocket–chain in the lifting system in the process of operation.
- (2)
- Combined with EDEM to simulate the soil covering simulation of the scraper lifting chain membrane mulching device before and after optimization, from the starting shovel crushing performance and soil quality to analyze and measure the effect of the improvement, the simulation results show that: the innovative design of the curved surface shovel soil upgrading effect is good. Applying the EDEM post-processing Selection module, it was calculated that the lower scraper conveyor soil flow rate was increased by a factor of three.
- (3)
- The results of the soil tank performance comparison test show that under the same soil conditions and operating parameters, the improved membrane mulching device has a simple structure, low power consumption, good working performance of all components, good soil crushing effect during planting operations, fast flow speed, test probability of congestion of about 10%, and low congestion, and the whole membrane surface mulching quantity has been improved by 47.5%. After optimization and improvement, the standard requirements of dryland potato seedling strip mulching planting technology on mulching parameters have been reached, and the innovative and optimized working structure combination is of great significance for dryland potato yield on the Loess Plateau.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 3.**Schematic diagram of the working principle of the covering device on the spanning membrane: 1. Frame; 2. Screw conveyor; 3. Mulching on film; 4. Monopoly body; 5. Soil lifting mechanism; 6. Soil picking shovel; 7. Ground wheel; 8. Input axis.

**Figure 4.**Structure of spanning membrane mulching device: (

**a**) axonometric drawing: 1. soil shovel; 2. scraping board; 3. transmission chain; 4. guide wheel; 5. soil lifting shell; 6. soil lifting device drive shaft; 7. soil transport box; 8. screw conveyor. (

**b**) Starboard view.

**Figure 10.**Standard solution application for scraper lifting device: (

**a**) upper scraping; (

**b**) lower scraping.

**Figure 11.**(

**a**) Upper scraping. 1. Soil; 2. Lifting shovel; 3. Driven wheel; 4. Scraper; 5. Lifting chain; (

**b**) Lower scraping: 1. Soil; 2. Lifting shovel; 3. Driven wheel; 4. Scraper; 5. Lifting chain. Working principle of scraper lifting mechanism where ω is the angular velocity of the driven wheel, rad/s

^{−1}; v is the forward speed, ms

^{−1}; H is the depth of the soil, mm; γ is the angle between the ascending belt and the horizontal plane, (°); ψ is the angle of internal friction of the soil, (°); r is the radius of the driven wheel, mm; h is the height of the scraper, mm; l is the pitch of the scraper, mm; v′ is the speed of the ascending chain, m/s

^{−1}.

Improved Parameters | Deteriorating Parameters |
---|---|

26 Quantity of a Substance or Thing | |

10 Force | 14 The principle of surfacing |

29 Pneumatic and hydraulic construction principles | |

18 Principle of mechanical vibration | |

36 Phase change principle |

Program Number | Program Description | Schema | Programmatic Evaluation | Order |
---|---|---|---|---|

1 | The surface of the shovel is designed as a curved surface, which improves the damping performance and provides the effect of breaking up the soil. | Easy to implement, low cost. | 1 | |

2 | Blowers are used to blow the soil into the scraper lift chain. | Replaced the source of the problem—earth extraction shovel—easy to implement, introduces new problems. | 3 | |

3 | Vibrating motor to provide the excitation source for the shovel. | Easy to implement, slightly more expensive. | 2 | |

4 | The vibration is realized by a crank linkage mechanism that drives the earth moving shovel in a reciprocating motion. | Relative complexity and introduction of new issues. | 4 |

Material | Material Parameters | Contact Parameters | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Poisson Ratio | Shear Modulus/MPa | Density /(kg·m ^{−3}) | Collision Form | Restitution Coefficient | Static Friction Coefficient | Dynamic Friction Coefficient | |

Soil | 0.3 | 100 | 2680 | Particle–Particle | 0.3 | 0.5 | 0.3 |

65Mn | 0.28 | 3.5 × 10^{4} | 7850 | Particle–Steel | 0.3 | 0.3 | 0.2 |

Steel | 0.25 | 1.0 × 10^{7} | 7800 |

Parameters | Numerical Value |
---|---|

Normal contact stiffness/(N·m^{2}) | 108 |

Tangential contact stiffness/(N·m^{2}) | 5 × 10^{7} |

Critical normal stress/Pa | 30,000 |

Critical tangential stress/Pa | 15,000 |

Bonding radius/mm | 5.4 |

Test Indicators | Improved Device Value/Mean Deviation | Original Installation Value/Mean Deviation |
---|---|---|

Probability of machine congestion | 10% | 30% |

Mulching of the entire membrane surface | 21.06 kg/1.06 kg | 14.27 kg/1.12 kg |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Zhang, H.; Li, H.; Sun, W.; Li, H.; Liu, X.; Sun, G.; Lu, Y.; Chen, Y.; Xing, W.
Optimization of Potato Planter Soil Lifting Device Based on TRIZ Theory. *Agriculture* **2024**, *14*, 1695.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture14101695

**AMA Style**

Zhang H, Li H, Sun W, Li H, Liu X, Sun G, Lu Y, Chen Y, Xing W.
Optimization of Potato Planter Soil Lifting Device Based on TRIZ Theory. *Agriculture*. 2024; 14(10):1695.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture14101695

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Zhang, Hua, Hongling Li, Wei Sun, Hui Li, Xiaolong Liu, Gang Sun, Yonggang Lu, Yangzhou Chen, and Wei Xing.
2024. "Optimization of Potato Planter Soil Lifting Device Based on TRIZ Theory" *Agriculture* 14, no. 10: 1695.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture14101695