Next Article in Journal
Egg Production and Quality, Lipid Metabolites, Antioxidant Status and Immune Response of Laying Hens Fed Diets with Various Levels of Soaked Flax Seed Meal
Next Article in Special Issue
Flower Strips and Their Ecological Multifunctionality in Agricultural Fields
Previous Article in Journal
Agricultural Production Optimization and Marginal Product Response to Climate Change
Previous Article in Special Issue
Reducing Carbon Footprint of Agriculture—Can Organic Farming Help to Mitigate Climate Change?
Order Article Reprints
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:

Yeasts as a Potential Biological Agent in Plant Disease Protection and Yield Improvement—A Short Review

Department of Organic Agriculture and Environmental Protection, Institute of Plant Protection—National Research Institute, Władysława Węgorka 20, 60-318 Poznan, Poland
Department of Agroecosystems and Horticulture, University of Warmia and Mazury, Michala Oczapowskiego 2, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agriculture 2022, 12(9), 1404;
Received: 12 August 2022 / Revised: 28 August 2022 / Accepted: 30 August 2022 / Published: 6 September 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Crop Protection in Organic Farming System)


The role of biocontrol products is expected to increase worldwide consumer demand and facilitate the implementation of sustainable agricultural policies. New biocontrol agents must allow for an effective crop-protection strategy in sustainable agriculture. Yeasts are microorganisms living in various niches of the environment that can be antagonists of many plant pathogens. Yeasts rapidly colonize plant surfaces, use nutrients from many sources, survive in a relatively wide temperature range, produce no harmful metabolites and have no deleterious effects on the final food products. Hence, they can be a good biocontrol agent. In this paper, the biological characteristics and potential of yeast are summarized. Additionally, the mechanisms of yeasts as plant-protection agents are presented. This includes the production of volatile organic compounds, production of killer toxins, competition for space and nutrient compounds, production of lytic enzymes, induction of plant immunity and mycoparasitism. The mechanisms of yeast interaction with plant hosts are also described, and examples of yeasts used for pre- and postharvest biocontrol are provided. Commercially available yeast-based products are listed and challenges for yeast-based products are described.

1. Introductions

The role of bioproducts in agricultural practices world-wide—biopesticides and biofertilizers, i.e., “microbial-based” pesticides or fertilizers—is expected to increase in an effort to implement sustainable agriculture policies. Many microbial strains have the capacity to augment plant productivity by enhancing crop nutrition and functioning as biopesticides [1]. This includes yeasts, which affect harmful microorganisms both directly and indirectly.
Crops, both during their growth and after harvest, are exposed to the negative impact of pathogenic microorganisms. Plant pathogens significantly impair the quantity and quality of crops and their potential suitability for the consumer. Infected products can also pose a health risk. In intensive agriculture, chemical plant-protection products are widely used. However, the use of chemical plant-protection products in organic farming is prohibited. Additionally, their use carries risks such as the increasing resistance of pathogens to the active substances, which reduces pesticide efficacy. Their use also causes the deposition and accumulation of pesticide active substances in soil and water, which in general alters the functioning of ecosystems, and in particular disrupts the interactions between organisms. Therefore, there is a need to look for alternative methods of plant protection in relation to organic farming systems and sustainability systems.
Nowadays, consumers are increasingly considering the impact of how food is produced based on ethical and pro-environmental motives, and are opting for organically grown products. Biopesticides based on microorganisms, including yeasts, can help to provide such products. Despite the fact that biocontrol agents have been researched for more than fifty years, which has led to the commercial registration of biological agents, new biocontrol agents still need to be introduced into the biopesticide market; this will allow an effective crop-protection strategy in sustainable agriculture. In particular, the use of antagonistic yeasts as potential biocontrol agents still needs to be explored and brought into wider and more common use. Among the microorganisms that are potential antagonists to plant pathogens, yeast meets all the conditions for an effective antagonist against plant disease agents: they must rapidly colonize the plant surface, have the ability to utilize components from a variety of sources, survive in a relatively wide temperature range, produce no harmful metabolites and have no deleterious effects on the final food product. Their metabolic activity is evident. They thrive in many ecosystems, where they interact with other microorganisms, including reducing the abundance of phytopathogens in the environment. They can be cultured relatively easily and their metabolites can be collected, which makes it possible to select those yeast species and strains which can potentially be used as biofungicides.
Yeasts are microscopic eukaryotic (i.e., living organisms having a cell nucleus surrounded by a nuclear membrane) organisms in the kingdom of Fungi (mainly Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla). As heterotrophic organisms, they require carbon and nitrogen as nutrients. Under aerobic conditions, yeasts assimilate carbohydrates to produce CO2 and H2O, and under anaerobic conditions, they convert carbohydrates to alcohol through the process of fermentation. Their cells (round, ellipsoidal, oval, or cylindrical) form colonies. Their shape and size depend on the species, the condition of the culture and the age of the colony. The cells typically range in size from 3 to 10 µm in length and 2 to 7µm in width. They can be haploid, diploid, or polyploid. They are either homothallic (the exchange of genetic material occurs in one individual) or heterothallic (another individual is required to exchange genetic material). Their morphology as single-cell organisms allows for adhesion and biofilm formation. This impacts their ability to survive in the environment and enhances their competitiveness.
They reproduce vegetatively (asexually) and generatively (sexually). The first kind of asexual reproduction in yeast—budding—requires the right environmental conditions, which include temperature and availability of nutrients. This type of reproduction is characteristic of Candida, Saccharomyces, Pichia and Rhodotorula. The buds (daughter cells) are identical to the parent cells but smaller. The cells separate from the parent cell and form a separate organism, or—as in the case of the genus Candida—fuse with it and form a pseudomycelium. The second type of asexual reproduction is fission. In this process, the cell grows by elongating in one direction and daughter cells are identical in size to the parent cell. This type of reproduction is characteristic of Schizosaccharomyces. Under stress conditions such as lack of nutrients, yeasts undergo sporulation. The shape of the spores is characteristic of each yeast species. During sexual reproduction, haploid spores conjugate, forming diploids.
Their complex genome organization reduces the frequency of horizontal gene transfer, compared with other fungi. Additionally, most yeast species (excluding many S. cerevisiae strains) lack plasmids, which excludes the risk of plasmid-based pathogenicity and toxin biosynthesis genes.

2. Bioactivity Mechanisms of Yeasts

The effects of yeasts on plants and their pathogens are not as comprehensively described as other microorganisms, such as bacteria or filamentous fungi. They have positive effects on the growth and protection of crop plants, both directly and indirectly. They have positive effects on plants both as biostimulants and as biopesticides, reducing the development and impact of pathogens. To successfully apply yeasts as plant-protection agents, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms underlying their interaction with plants and plant pathogens.
For the biocontrol of plant pathogens using yeasts, multiple mechanisms such as the production of volatile organic compounds, production of toxins, competition for space and nutrient compounds, production of lytic enzymes, induction of plant immunity and mycoparasitism are involved (Table 1). In most yeast species, a few mechanisms occur simultaneously, which enhance the antagonistic effect against phytopathogens.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are produced by microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria and yeast during their primary and secondary metabolism [2]. They are species-specific and are involved in intercellular communication, as well as in supporting or limiting the growth of other microorganisms [3]. Their chemical composition (a blend of volatiles called volatilome) strongly depends on the environment and the pathogen being antagonized [4]; the chemical composition includes alcohols, aldehydes, cyclohexanes, benzene derivatives, heterocyclic compounds, hydrocarbons, ketones, phenols, thioalcohols and thioesters. These are small molecules (generally under 300 Da) poorly soluble in water and with a high vapor pressure at room temperature. Physical contact between the biocontrol agent and the pathogen is not needed. The role of volatilome has been described in recent studies. VOCs are produced by such species as Sporidiobolus pararoseus Fell & Tallman [5], Candida sake [6], Hanseniaspora [7], Wickerhamomyces anomalus (E.C. Hansen) Kurtzman, M. pulcherrima, Aureobasidium pullulans and S. cerevisiae [8,9]. They have been proven to successfully reduce the growth of such pathogens as B. cinerea, Colletotrichum acutatum J.H. Simmonds, Penicillium expansum Link, Penicillium digitatum [Pers.] Sacc. and Penicillium italicum Wehmer [5,9,10].
Yeasts typically do not produce any toxic metabolites, which makes them biologically safe. In 2016, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain LAS02 was approved as a low-risk active substance under Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the placing of plant-protection products on the market, and amending the Annex to Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 540/2011. Some strains of yeast can produce toxic proteins that cause degradation of the cell membrane of selected organisms [11]. These killer yeasts are resistant to their own toxins. This mechanism was initially discovered in S. cerevisiae [12] and is toxic to other yeast species; however, the toxins have shown activity against other species and types of microorganisms, including bacteria and filamentous fungi [11,12,13,14]. This mechanism was then reported for other yeast species: Pseudozyma flocculosa (Traquair, L.A. Shaw & Jarvis) Boekhout & Traquair [15], Pichia anomala E.C. Hansen [16], Wickerhamomyces sp. [17], Pichia membranifaciens E.C. Hansen [18], Debaryomyces hansenii Zopf [13], Kluyveromyces lactis (Stell.-Dekk.) Van der Wal [19] and A. pullulans [20]. In biological plant protection, toxins produced by yeast can be used in order to obtain products safe for human consumption and environment. Modes of yeast action are varied, even with respect to the same species; these various modes are presented in Table 2.
Yeasts, like all microorganisms, compete with other organisms, including plant pathogens, for nutrients and space [21,22]. This mechanism, which is considered their primary mode of action, is important when protecting plant products in storage, including fruit storage [21], as well as in the natural environment, where resources are limited. Yeasts grow rapidly and intensively, forming a biofilm on the surface of plants—a membrane of interconnected microorganisms, which can be treated as a single organism or a consortium, and which cause inhibition of the pathogen’s mycelial growth and spore production [22]. Additionally, yeasts colonize plant surfaces, especially in damaged areas, where the plant is most prone to infection by pathogens that access released nutrient substrates [23]. Yeasts deplete the available nutrients to build their biomass and thus limit nutrient availability to pathogens. During biofilm formation, individual yeast cells attach themselves to the plant surface and form an intercellular network, as well as hyphae and pseudohyphae [24,25]. Biofilms are formed by species such as Pichia fermentans Lodder, A. pullulans, Kloeckera apiculata (Niehaus) Shehata, Mrak & Phaff ex M.T. Sm, S. cerevisiae, Pichia kudriavzevii Boidin, Pignal & Besson, W. anomalus and M. pulcherrima [26,27,28,29,30]. Competition for nutrients can result in complete inhibition of pathogenic fungal spore germination. For example, studies have shown inhibition of growth of P. expansum [31] and Monilinia laxa (Aderh & Ruhland) Honey [32] by A. pullulans. This interaction is attributed, among other things, to intense competition for iron, one of the key elements for microorganisms [22].
The production of lytic enzymes upon direct contact between the yeast and the pathogen is another mechanism that has been well-studied. This mechanism is particularly effective against necrotrophs [33]. Yeasts can secrete such enzymes as chitinases, glucanases, lipases, or proteases. Chitinases allow efficient degradation of the cell wall of plant pathogens, and their secretion is considered useful for biocontrol agents. Among yeasts, this activity has been described for such genera as Candida, Metschnikowia, Meyerozyma, Pichia and Saccharomyces [34,35,36,37]. Chitinases, moreover, can stimulate natural plant immune processes by degrading chitin and producing chitooligosaccharides [38]. Lipases are enzymes characterized by their interaction with non-water-soluble substrates. Their presence has been confirmed for such yeasts as genera Candida and Cryptococcus [39,40]. Beta-glucans are essential components of the fungal cell wall, responsible for cell adhesion and resistance to toxins. β-1,3-glucanase, which is produced by such yeasts as Candida famata (Zopf) Lodder & Kreger, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (A. Jorg.) F.C. Harrison and W. anomalus [40,41,42,43,44], is effective in reducing pathogen growth.
Although proteases are recognized as an important factor in antagonistic processes, their production by yeast has not been thoroughly studied. Bar-Shimon et al. [34] described the secretion of proteases by Candida oleophila Montrocher, and Pretscher et al. [45] described the secretion of proteases by the genera Metschnikowia, Pichia and Wickerhamomyces.
Yeasts can also stimulate natural plant defence processes [46]. The plant’s own immune system can recognize and respond to the presence of microorganisms, including pathogens. The resistance is induced systemically. Yeasts can induce the systemic defence of plants against many different pathogens by stimulating the production and activity of substances such as phytoalexins [47], chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase [48] and peroxidase [49].
Even though mycoparasitism (fungivory, where the fungus is consumed by another organism) is an important mechanism for plant protection, it is rather sporadically described. This mechanism is particularly effective, since yeast can adhere to the fungus cell wall, perforate it, and as a consequence stop the cell cycle, disrupting its morphology and lowering its turgor. This mechanism is linked to enzyme secretion such as glucanases (described above). Pichia guilliermondii (Wick.) Kurtzman & M. Suzuki [50]; Pseudozyma aphidis (Henninger & Windisch) Q.M. Wang, Begerow, F.Y. Bai & Boekhout [51]; Saccharomycopsis schoenii (Nadson & Krassiln.) Kurtzman & Robnett [52]; and Vishniacozyma tephrensis Vishniac ex Xin Zhan Liu, F.Y. Bai, M. Groenew. & Boekhout [53] have been shown to have mycoparasitic properties against plant pathogens.
Table 1. Multiple mechanisms of yeast as biocontrol agents—summary.
Table 1. Multiple mechanisms of yeast as biocontrol agents—summary.
MechanismYeast Species
Volatile organic compound secretionSporidiobolus pararoseus [5], Candida sake [6], Hanseniaspora sp. [7], Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Aureobasidium pullulans, S. cerevisiae [8,9]
Toxic protein secretionPseudozyma flocculosa [14], Pichia anomala [15], Wickerhamomyces sp. [16], Pichia membranifaciens [17], Debaryomyces hansenii [18], Kluyveromyces lactis [19], Aureobasidium pullulans [19]
Competition for nutrients and spacePichia fermentans, Aureobasidium pullulans, Kloeckera apiculata, Pichia kudriavzevii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima [25,26,27,28,29,30]
Lytic enzyme productionCandida sp., Metschnikowia sp., Meyerozyma sp., Pichia sp., Saccharomyce sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Wickerhamomyces anomalus [33,34,35,36,40,41,42,43,44]
Plant defence stimulationPichia guilliermondii [47], Pseudozyma aphidis [48]
MycoparasitismPichia guilliermondii [49], Pseudozyma aphidis [50] Saccharomycopsis schoenii [51], Vishniacozyma tephrensis [52]
Table 2. Killer toxins and their mode of action of Pichia spp. [18].
Table 2. Killer toxins and their mode of action of Pichia spp. [18].
Pichia SpeciesToxinMode of Action
P. acaciaeNRRLY-18665 (PaT)Cell cycle is stopped at G1, chitinase activity
P. anomalaNCYC434 (Panomycocin), ATCC 96603/K36/UP25F (PaKT), DBVPG 3003 (Pikt), YF07b (-),VKM-Y (WAKTa/b)(1-3)-β-D-glucan hydrolysis
P. farinosaKK1 (SMKT)Permeabilization of membrane
P. inositovoraNRRL Y-18709 (-)rRNA fragmentation
P. kluyveri1002 (-)Permeabilization of membrane
P. membranifaciensCYC 1106 (PMKT)
CYC 1086 (PMKT2)
Permeabilization of membrane, apoptosis
Cell cycle is stopped, apoptosis
P. ohmeri158 (-)Loss of cellular integrity

3. Interaction of Yeasts with Plant Hosts

Soil yeasts are mostly found in the rhizosphere [54,55,56] and have a positive effect on plant root growth [57,58,59]. Yeasts colonizing plants also improve their growth [60,61], including yeasts colonizing the leaf surface [62,63,64]. The mechanism for stimulating plant growth may involve making nutrients (such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) available for plants [65]. They also produce plant hormones such as auxins or cytokinins that have a significant impact on the regulation of plant physiological processes and growth [66]. In addition, yeasts promote plant resistance to physiological stress [67].
Yeasts can increase nutrient availability to plants. Low nitrogen (N) availability is one of the most significant causes of reduced plant yield [68]. Among the microorganisms most commonly used for nitrogen acquisition by plants are bacteria [67]. However, selected yeast species also have this ability. These include species such as Candida tropicalis (Castell.) Berkhout isolated from soil [69], Pseudozyma rugulosa (Traquair, L.A. Shaw & Jarvis) Q.M. Wang, Begerow, F.Y. Bai & Boekhout, Cryptococcus flavus Saito and Pseudozyma antarctica (Goto, Sugiyama & Iizuka) Q.M. Wang, Begerow, F.Y. Bai & Boekhout [61,70]. The yeast-produced enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylase (ACC) plays an important role in this process, causing the release of large amounts of ammonia, which triggers a microbe-mediated nitrogen-acquisition mechanism in plants [70]. Yeasts such as Candida tropicalis and various species of the genus Cryptococcus produce deaminases [71]. Other yeasts are involved in denitrification, which is the reduction of nitrate to nitrite or nitrogen during anaerobic respiration and converting it to biologically useful forms for plants [72,73,74]. After nitrogen, the second most important nutrient for plants is phosphorus (P) [75]. Its deficiencies can significantly affect crop yields. This element can be made available to plants by microorganisms from both organic and inorganic sources [76]. This includes C. tropicalis and Lachancea thermotolerans (Filippov) Kurtzman, which dissolve Ca3(PO4), as well as the Rhodotorula genus, which provides dissolved phosphorus by lowering the pH [77,78,79]. Other soil-derived species, such as Yarrowia lipolytica (Wick., Kurtzman & Herman) Van der Walt & Arx and S. cerevisiae, dissolve inorganic phosphorus compounds via citric acid production [69]. The third of the most important macronutrients for plants is potassium (K), which plays an important role in many processes, including plant growth [70]. Since much of this element in the soil exists in the form of insoluble mineral compounds, the role of the microorganism in making it available is extremely important [80]. This includes species such as Torulaspora globosa Klöcker [56] and Rhodotorula glutinis (Fresen.) F.C. Harrison and P. anomala [81,82], which can significantly increase the availability of this element by lowering soil pH.
Other nutrient availability (calcium, iron, magnesium, sulfur and zinc) for plants can be increased by the presence of microorganisms. This process is usually caused by increasing the acidity of the rhizosphere through the production of organic acids. In the literature, the yeasts Williopsis californica (Lodder) Kurtzman, Robnett & Basehoar-Power and S. cerevisiae are reported as oxidizing sulfur, as well as other nutrients [83,84,85].
Yeast can secrete phytohormones that have beneficial effects on plant growth. These phytohormones include such regulators as auxins containing indole, a heterocyclic chemical compound made of conjugated benzene and pyrrole rings [86], which regulates many important processes in plants [87]. The literature on auxin-producing yeasts mentions R. paludigenum, S. cerevisiae, A. pullulans, Candida sp., Dothideomycetes sp., Hanseniaspora uvarum (Niehaus) Shehata, Mrak & Phaff ex M.T. Sm., Meyerozyma caribbica (Vaughan-Mart. et al.) Kurtzman & Suzuki, Meyerozyma guilliermondii (Wickerham) Kurtzman & M. Suzuki, Torulaspora sp., Barnettozyma californica (Lodder) Kurtzman, Robnett & Basehoar-Power, Cryptococcus laurentii (Kuff.) X.Z. Liu, F.Y. Bai, M. Groenew. & Boekhout, Rhodosporidiobolus fluvialis (Fell, Kurtzman, Tallman & J.D. Buck) Q.M. Wang, F.Y. Bai, M. Groenew. & Boekhout Candida maltosa and P. kudriavzevii Komag., Nakase & Katsuya [58,66,70,88].
Another group of phytohormones synthesized by yeast is cytokinins. They have an important effect on the process of cell division in plants. Species producing them include Sporobolomyces roseus Kluyver & C. B. Niel, M. pulcherrima and A. pullulans [89]. Yeasts that produce gibberellic acid, a plant growth promoter that accelerates germination, can also be found [90].
Abiotic stress caused by adverse environmental conditions can significantly reduce crop yields, even by more than 50% [91]. However, this stress can be neutralized by the beneficial effects of microorganisms, including yeasts, by eliminating the effects of unfavorable temperatures [92,93], drought [94,95], salinity [96,97] or the presence of heavy metals [84]. One of the most commonly produced substances by plants in response to abiotic stress is the hormone ethylene [98,99,100]. This is a very effective plant regulator, which is active even at a low concentration. Each stage of plant development depends on its production [101]. However, excessive amounts of ethylene can be detrimental to the plant [102,103]. A deaminase enzyme located in the cytoplasm of microorganisms reduces the amount of ethylene and stimulates plant growth [104]. Yeasts such as C. tropicalis, P. rugulosa, P. antarctica, A. pullulans, Dothideomycetes sp., Cryptococcus sp., R. paludigenum and T. globosa have been reported to reduce ethylene and promote plant growth [58,67,105,106].

4. Use of Yeast for Preharvest Protection

Although yeasts are mainly used as antagonists against pathogens during the postharvest stage, examples of their successful preharvest use on wheat, vegetable crops and fruit have been described. It has been shown that a double treatment with Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae (Hamam., Sugiy. & Komag.] Q.M. Wang, F.Y. Bai, M. Groenew. & Boekhout), C. laurentii and A. pullulans combined with low doses of fungicides effectively reduced the infestation caused by powdery mildew of cereals and grasses by almost 90% and increased the yield and maturity of rice and/or wheat grain [73,107,108]. Wachowska and Glowacka [109] in a greenhouse experiment showed that a four-fold treatment with A. pullulans effectively stopped the development of F. culmorum pods on winter wheat and also caused fungi of the Acremonium and Penicillium genera to develop at a slower rate. Ponsone et al. [110] described the successful application of two strains of Lanchancea thermotolerans as biological antagonists against Aspergillus niger on grapes at harvest. The yeasts Cryptococcus magnus (Lodder & Kreger) Liu, Bai, Groenewald, & Boekhout, Cryptococcus sp., S. pararoseus, A. pullulans and Rhodotorula sp. effectively reduced symptoms of brown rot of stone fruit caused by Monilinia fructicola (G. Winter) Honey on nectarines [111].
Al-Ani et al. [112] observed a reduction in symptoms caused by potato virus Y after the application of yeast of the genus Rhodotorula, which also had a positive effect on germination, plant growth and dry weight.

5. Use of Yeast for Postharvest Protection

Biological control of postharvest diseases can be accomplished with commercially available products. Unfortunately, the availability of such products, especially those based on beneficial organisms whose activity greatly depends on environmental conditions, is still limited. Between 30 and 50 percent of fruit is lost during storage, never reaching the consumer [113]. A significant percentage of these losses is due to the effects of fungal pathogens such as Alternaria, Botrytis, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Monilia, Penicillium and Rhizopus. It is important to minimize these losses, especially in the current era, with a growing population and dwindling natural resources [114]. Agents based on microorganisms, including yeast, are potentially useful in preventing such losses; however, their availability on the market is relatively limited. At the same time, consumer awareness and demand for high-quality products protected using natural methods are steadily increasing, so it seems important to research such biological agents.
Among the products protected by yeast-based agents, strawberries, grapes, tomatoes, apples, pears, mangoes and kiwis have been described. In the study by Kowalska et al. [115] the yeast species Cryptococcus albidus was evaluated for postharvest control of Botrytis cinerea in strawberries in two experiments. The percentage of decayed fruit increased after 10 days of storage, but was about 20% lower in the C. albidus-treated than in the untreated fruit.
One of the important pathogens in fruit storage is B. cinerea. Species such as R. glutinis [116], Hanseniaspora opuntiae Čadež, Poot, Raspor & M.T. Sm [117], A. pullulans [118,119] and L. thermotolerans and M. pulcherrima [120] were proven effective against grey mold. In other studies on protecting apples in storage, chitin isolated from the cell walls of S. cerevisiae was effective [121]. Studies on the effects of yeasts isolated from marine sediments show the effectiveness of Scheffersomyces spartinae (Ahearn, Yarrow & Meyers) Kurtzman & M. Suzuki and Candida pseudolambica M.T. Sm. & Poot in apple protection [122].
The genus Aspergillus is also a cause of losses in fruit storage. Yeasts from the genera Rhodotorula, Metschnikowia, Saccharomyces and Pichia were researched by Tryfinopoulou et al. [123] and were proven to be effective against Aspergillus. Li et al. [124] described the antagonistic effect of S. pararoseus against Aspergillus niger Tiegh. Jaibangyang et al. [125] described Candida nivariensis Alcoba-Flórez, Méndez-Álv., Cano, Guarro, Pérez-Roth & Arévalo as being effective against Aspergillus flavus Link.
Penicillium is also another storage-relevant pathogen. Assaf et al. [126] proved that M. pulcherrima effectively reduced disease symptoms caused by four strains of P. expansum. Alvarez et al. [127] also demonstrated the efficacy of Candida sake (Saito & Oda) van Uden & H.R. Buckley isolated from the Arctic environment against P. expansum. Sun et al. [121] showed that the cell wall of Rhodosporidium paludigenum (Fell & Tallman) Q.M. Wang, F.Y. Bai, M. Groenew. & Boekhout induced a strong immune response against P. expansum and Hershkovitz et al. [128] reported an enhanced immune response against Penicillium digitatum after treatment with a Metschnikowia fructicola-based preparation.

6. Yeast-Based Crop-Protection Products Available Worldwide

Several bioproducts based on yeast strains and one based on a substance derived from yeast cell walls are registered internationally at the moment (Table 3). Blossom Protect (fungicide and bactericide), Botector and BoniProtect (fungicides) contain germinated cells of A. pullulans (strains DSM 14940 and DSM 14941). Blossom Protect is intended for use against fire blight, bitter rot, grey mold, wet and brown rot and anthracnose in fruit storage and apple orchards. Botector prevents grey mold on grapevines, strawberries and other fruit. BoniProtect is used against fungal diseases caused by Pezicula sp., Nectria sp., B. cinerea, Monilinia fructigena Honey and P. expansum in orchards. Julietta is a fungicide containing the LAS02 strain of S. cerevisiae, designed to prevent grey mold on strawberries and tomatoes in greenhouses and under covers. Nexy contains the yeast C. oleophila and is used against grey and blue mold in apple and pear fruit storage. Noli, containing Metschnikowia fructicola strain NRRL Y-27328 KM1110 WDG, is used against postharvest decay in certain fruits and berries caused by Botrytis and Monilinia spp. Romeo, a product containing cerewisan, and whose main ingredient is the cell walls of S. cerevisiae, is used to prevent powdery mildew and grey mold on crops such as grapevines, lettuce, tomato, strawberry and cucumber.
More yeast-based products are also commercially available as plant development and growth enhancers, often combined with other microorganisms and plant extracts. Although they are available on the market on the basis of legal acts on fertilization, their agricultural suitability is not subject to such rigorous assessment, as is the case with plant protection products. It is also difficult to compile a list of such commercial products available in different countries.

7. Challenges and Possibilities for Yeast-Based Bioproducts

Incorporating microbiological agents in plant protection can help to minimize or exclude the use of agrichemicals and enhance plant quality. However, biological plant protection products need to meet strict criteria. They need to exhibit high pathogen inhibition ability. Development and implementation take many years for both in vitro and in planta studies, and are expensive. While their biomass production should be cost-effective, the process is usually complicated, and time and resources are intensive. A proper carrier (such as lignite dust) needs to be used to ensure the microorganisms’ survival in the environment. Proper formulation is key for their usability and viability. The right carrier, which is effective, biodegradable and nonpolluting, can increase the biocontrol agent’s efficiency and lifespan, including yeasts. Among the types of formulations for biopesticides, presently solid (peat, powder and granules) and liquid carriers are used. It is also crucial that the antagonistic properties proved in the laboratory are preserved irrespective of the production scale. Another issue is maintaining their antagonistic properties and ensuring their consistency of performance under different environmental conditions. It is also important to consider the microorganisms’ compatibility with the plant. These challenges are some of the reasons why the number of yeast strains exhibiting antagonistic activity against plant pathogens in laboratory experiments is much higher than those implemented into practice. To overcome those issues, systemic biocontrol strategies need to be developed, that take into consideration beneficial microorganisms, crops, pests and agricultural practices alike [129]. Additionally, the current productive structure, including technical production systems, regulations and markets, needs to be adjusted to be suitable for biocontrol methods and strategies [130].
However, despite these challenges, there is a need for biological organic crop protectants and yield enhancers to be developed and put into practical use. In addition, yeasts can be used not only as biocontrol agents against plant pathogens, but as mentioned above, they are environmentally safe and can participate in the bioremediation strategy [131]. Rhodotorula glutinis and Rhodotorula rubra have been shown to degrade organophosphorus chlorpyrifos [132] and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was used to eliminate neonicotinoid insecticides and thiacloprid [72].
Genetically modified yeast strains M. pulcherrima, Cryptococcus tephrensis and A. pullulans can also reduce pest populations [133,134] in combination with granulovirus, which increases the mortality of the larvae and guarantees better protection of the apple tree against apple fruit invasion by Cydia pomonella [135] by producing pheromone components or precursors. Modified Yarrowia liplytica yeast produces the sexual pheromone of Helicoverpa armigera, effectively eliminating this pest in field experiments on cotton, tomato and corn [136,137,138].

8. Conclusions

Biological control with microorganisms is effective, sustainable and environmentally friendly [139]. Applying it can successfully reduce the need for chemical fungicides, whose harmful influence on human health and the environment is substantial [140]. In an age of increasing demand for biological plant-protection agents, further research leading to achieving this goal is necessary, especially considering that these living microorganisms need adequate conditions to survive after application, and thus the strategy of treatments based on living yeasts or substances produced by them must be developed together with the technology of production for these biological products [141,142].
The possibilities of using yeasts are very promising, more so as they have been known for several years as organisms with great protective potential. Studies are still being carried out to understand the biochemical mechanism between the plant pathogen and the yeast cell, as a result of which the plant’s defense system is activated. Plants are known to produce the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) in response to abiotic stresses. The ABA signaling pathway is very complex and relies on a large number of copies of genes encoding homologous signaling components. Abscisic acid (ABA) is the main phytohormone involved in many developmental processes and in increasing resistance to environmental stresses. Yeast is used as a reconstitution system to investigate the functionality of this complex and the highly multiplexed core signaling pathway. Further work will be needed to investigate which new models derived from the reconstruction of the ABA signal transduction pathway in yeast reflect the signaling mechanisms present in plants. Perhaps it will help to isolate and start working with molecules and to develop new protective innovative bioproducts, as was in the case with nanocompounds [143]. The positive effect of agriculture-friendly nanocompounds, sometimes combined with bioinoculants, that can be used as a good alternative to chemical fertilizers in sustainable agriculture was confirmed [144,145]. Now is a new challenge to develop nanotechnology with yeast molecules to be used for plant protection.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, J.K. (Jolanta Kowalska) and J.K. (Joanna Krzymińskaand); investigation, J.K. (Jolanta Kowalska) and J.K. (Joanna Krzymińskaand); writing—original draft preparation and editing, J.K. (Joanna Krzymińskaand), J.K. (Jolanta Kowalska) and J.T.; supervision, J.K. (Jolanta Kowalska) and J.T. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research received no external funding.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

Not applicable.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Kowalska, J.; Tyburski, J.; Matysiak, K.; Tylkowski, B.; Malusá, E. Field Exploitation of Multiple Functions of Beneficial Microorganisms for Plant Nutrition and Protection: Real Possibility or Just a Hope? Front. Microbiol. 2020, 11, 1904. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  2. Korpi, A.; Järnberg, J.; Pasanen, A.L. Microbial volatile organic compounds. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 2009, 39, 139–193. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Kai, M.; Haustein, M.; Molina, F.; Petri, A.; Scholz, B.; Piechulla, B. Bacterial volatiles and their action potential. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2009, 81, 1001–1012. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  4. Parafati, L.; Vitale, A.; Restuccia, C.; Cirvilleri, G. Performance evaluation of volatile organic compounds by antagonistic yeasts immobilized on hydrogel spheres against gray, green and blue postharvest decays. Food Microbiol. 2017, 63, 191–198. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  5. Huang, R.; Che, H.J.; Zhang, J.; Yang, L.; Jiang, D.H.; Li, G.Q. Evaluation of Sporidiobolus pararoseus strain YCXT3 as biocontrol agent of Botrytis cinerea on post-harvest strawberry fruits. Biol. Control 2012, 62, 53–63. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  6. Arrarte, E.; Garmendia, G.; Rossini, C.; Wisniewski, M.; Vero, S. Volatile organic compounds produced by Antarctic strains of Candida sake play a role in the control of postharvest pathogens of apples. Biol. Control 2017, 109, 14–20. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  7. Ruiz-Moyano, S.; Hernández, A.; Galvan, A.I.; Córdoba, M.G.; Casquete, R.; Serradilla, M.J.; Martín, A. Selection and application of antifungal VOC sproducing yeasts as biocontrol agents of grey mould in fruits. Food Microbiol. 2020, 92, 103556. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  8. Contarino, R.; Brighina, S.; Fallico, B.; Cirvilleri, G.; Parafati, L.; Restuccia, C. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by biocontrol yeasts. Food Microbiol. 2019, 82, 70–74. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  9. Di Francesco, A.; Zajc, J.; Gunde-Cimerman, N.; Aprea, E.; Gasperi, F.; Placì, N.; Caruso, F.; Baraldi, E. Bioactivity of volatile organic compounds by Aureobasidium species against gray mold of tomato and table grape. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2020, 36, 171. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  10. Huang, R.; Li, G.Q.; Zhang, J.; Yang, L.; Che, H.J.; Jiang, D.H.; Huang, H.C. Control of postharvest Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry by volatile organic compounds of Candida Intermedia. Phytopathlogy 2011, 101, 859–869. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  11. Freimoser, F.M.; Rueda-Mejia, M.P.; Tilocca, B.; Migheli, Q. Biocontrol yeasts: Mechanisms and applications. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2019, 35, 154. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. El-Banna, A.A.; El-Sahn, M.A.; Shehata, M.G. Yeasts producing killer toxins: An overview. Alex. J. Food Sci. Tech. 2011, 8, 41–53. [Google Scholar]
  13. Corbaci, C.; Ucar, F.B. Purification, characterization and in vivo biocontrol efficiency of killer toxins from Debaryomyces hansenii strains. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2018, 119, 1077–1082. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Mannazzu, I.; Domizio, P.; Carboni, G.; Zara, S.; Zara, G.; Comitini, F.; Budroni, M.; Ciani, M. Yeast killer toxins: From ecological significance to application. Crit. Rev. Biotechnol. 2019, 39, 603–617. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  15. Mimee, B.; Labbe, C.; Belanger, R.R. Catabolism of flocculosin, an antimicrobial metabolite produced by Pseudozyma flocculosa. Glycobiology 2009, 19, 995–1001. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  16. Izgu, D.A.; Kepekci, R.A.; Izgu, F. Inhibition of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum in vitro and in planta with Panomycocin, a novel exo-β-1,3-glucanase isolated from Pichia anomala NCYC 434. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 2011, 99, 85–91. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  17. Perez, M.F.; Contreras, L.; Garnica, N.M.; Fernández-Zenoff, M.V.; Farías, M.E.; Sepulveda, M.; Dib, J.R. Native killer yeasts as biocontrol agents of postharvest fungal diseases in lemons. PLoS ONE 2016, 11, e0165590. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  18. Belda, I.; Ruiz, J.; Alonso, A.; Marquina, D.; Santos, A. The biology of Pichia membranifaciens killer toxins. Toxins 2017, 9, 112. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  19. Tzelepis, G.; Karlsson, M. Killer toxin-like chitinases in filamentous fungi: Structure, regulation and potential roles in fungal biology. Fungal Biol. Rev. 2019, 33, 123–132. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Moura, V.S.; Pollettini, F.L.; Ferraz, L.P.; Mazzi, M.V.; Kupper, K.C. Purification of a killer toxin from Aureobasidium pullulans for the biocontrol of phytopathogens. J. Basic Microbiol. 2021, 61, 77–87. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  21. Spadaro, D.; Droby, S. Development of biocontrol products for postharvest diseases of fruit: The importance of elucidating the mechanisms of action of yeast antagonists. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2016, 47, 39–49. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  22. Muccilli, S.; Restuccia, C. Bioprotective role of yeasts. Microorganisms 2015, 3, 588–611. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Klein, M.N.; Kupper, K.C. Biofilm production by Aureobasidium pullulans improves biocontrol against sour rot in citrus. Food Microbiol. 2018, 69, 1–10. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Costa-Orlandi, C.B.; Sardi, J.C.; Pitangui, N.S.; De Oliveira, H.C.; Scorzoni, L.; Galeane, M.C.; Mendes-Giannini, M.J.S. Fungal biofilms and polymicrobial diseases. J. Fungi 2017, 3, 22. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Cavalheiro, M.; Teixeira, M.C. Candida biofilms: Threats, challenges, and promising strategies. Front. Med. 2018, 5, 28. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Ortu, G.; Demontis, M.A.; Budroni, M.; Goyard, S.; d’Enfert, C.; Migheli, Q. Study of biofilm formation in Candida albicans may help understanding the biocontrol capability of a flor strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae against the phytopathogenic fungus Penicillium expansum. J. Plant Pathol. 2005, 87, 300. [Google Scholar]
  27. Pu, L.; Jingfan, F.; Kai, C.; Chao-an, L.; Yunjiang, C. Phenylethanol promotes adhesion and biofilm formation of the antagonistic yeast Kloeckera apiculata for the control of blue mold on citrus. FEMS Yeast Res. 2014, 14, 536–546. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  28. Maserti, B.; Podda, A.; Giorgetti, L.; Del Carratore, R.; Chevret, D.; Migheli, Q. Proteome changes during yeast-like and pseudohyphal growth in the biofilmforming yeast Pichia fermentans. Amino Acids 2015, 47, 1091–1106. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  29. Wachowska, U.; Głowacka, K.; Mikołajczyk, W.; Kucharska, K. Biofilm of Aureobasidium pullulans var. pullulans on winter wheat kernels and its effect on other microorganisms. Microbiology 2016, 85, 523–530. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  30. Chi, M.; Li, G.; Liu, Y.; Liu, G.; Li, M.; Zhang, X.; Liu, J. Increase in antioxidant enzyme activity, stress tolerance and biocontrol efficacy of Pichia kudriavzevii with the transition from a yeast-like to biofilm morphology. Biol. Control 2015, 90, 113–119. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  31. Bencheqroun, S.K.; Bajji, M.; Massart, S.; Labhilili, M.; El Jaafari, S.; Jijakli, M.H. In vitro and in situ study of postharvest apple blue mold biocontrol by Aureobasidium pullulans: Evidence for the involvement of competition for nutrients. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 2007, 46, 128–135. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  32. Di Francesco, A.; Ugolini, L.; D’Aquino, S.; Pagnotta, E.; Mari, M. Biocontrol of Monilinia laxa by Aureobasidium pullulans strains: Insights on competition for nutrients and space. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2017, 248, 32–38. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  33. Castoria, R.; Wright, S.A.I. Host responses to biological control agents. Postharvest Pathol. 2009, 2, 171–181. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  34. Bar-Shimon, M.; Yehuda, H.; Cohen, L.; Weiss, B.; Kobeshnikov, A.; Daus, A.; Droby, S. Characterization of extracellular lytic enzymes produced by the yeast biocontrol agent Candida Oleophila. Curr. Genet. 2004, 45, 140–148. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  35. Saravanakumar, D.; Spadaro, D.; Garibaldi, A.; Gullino, M.L. Detection of enzymatic activity and partial sequence of a chitinase gene in Metschnikowia pulcherrima strain MACH1 used as post harvest biocontrol agent. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 2009, 123, 183–193. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  36. Zhang, Z.; Chenm, J.; Li, B.; He, C.; Chen, Y.; Tian, S. Influence of oxidative stress on biocontrol activity of Cryptococcus laurentii against blue mold on peach fruit. Front. Microbiol. 2017, 8, 151. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  37. Junker, K.; Chailyan, A.; Hesselbart, A.; Forster, J.; Wendland, J. Multi-omics characterization of the necrotrophic mycoparasite Saccharomycopsis schoenii. PLoS Pathog. 2019, 15, e1007692. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  38. Langner, T.; Gohre, V. Fungal chitinases: Function, regulation, and potential roles in plant/pathogen interactions. Curr. Genet. 2015, 62, 243–254. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  39. Mayer, F.L.; Wilson, D.; Hube, B. Candida albicans pathogenicity mechanisms. Virulence 2013, 4, 119–128. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  40. Park, M.; Do, E.; Jung, W.H. Lipolytic enzymes involved in the virulence of human pathogenic fungi. Mycobiology 2013, 41, 67–72. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  41. Magallon-Andalon, C.G.; Luna-Solano, G.; Ragazzo-Sanchez, J.; Calderon-Santoyo, M. Parasitism and substrate competitions effect of antagonistic yeasts for biocontrol of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in papaya (Carica papaya L.) var Maradol. Mex. J. Sci. Res. 2012, 1, 2–9. [Google Scholar]
  42. Lima, J.R.; Gondim, D.M.F.; Oliveira, J.T.A.; Oliveira, F.S.A.; Gonçalves, L.R.B.; Viana, F.M.P. Use of killer yeast in the management of postharvest papaya anthracnose. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 2013, 83, 58–64. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  43. Lu, L.; Lu, H.; Wu, C.; Fang, W.; Yu, C.; Ye, C.; Shi, Y.; Yu, T.; Zheng, X. Rhodosporidium paludigenum induces resistance and defense-related responses against Penicillium digitatum in citrus fruit. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 2013, 85, 196–202. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  44. Zhang, Q.; Zhao, L.; Li, Z.; Li, C.; Li, B.; Gu, X.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, H. Screening and identification of an antagonistic yeast controlling postharvest blue mold decay of pears and the possible mechanisms involved. Biol. Control 2019, 133, 26–33. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  45. Pretscher, J.; Fischkal, T.; Branscheidt, S.; Jäger, L.; Kahl, S.; Schlander, M.; Claus, H. Yeasts from different habitats and their potential as biocontrol agents. Fermentation 2018, 4, 31. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  46. Lee, G.; Lee, S.H.; Kim, K.M.; Ryu, C.M. Foliar application of the leafcolonizing yeast Pseudozyma churashimaensis elicits systemic defense of pepper against bacterial and viral pathogens. Sci. Rep. 2017, 7, 39432. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. Ahuja, I.; Kissen, R.; Bones, A.M. Phytoalexins in defense against pathogens. Trends Plant Sci. 2012, 17, 73–90. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  48. Chatterton, S.; Punja, Z.K. Chitinase and β-1, 3-glucanase enzyme production by the mycoparasite Clonostachys rosea f. catenulata against fungal plant pathogens. Can. J. Microbiol. 2009, 55, 356–367. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  49. Latef, A.A.H.A.; Mostofa, M.G.; Rahman, M.M.; Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Tran, L.S.P. Extracts from yeast and carrot roots enhance maize performance under seawater-induced salt stress by altering physio-biochemical characteristics of stressed plants. J. Plant Growth Regul. 2019, 38, 966–979. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  50. Wisniewski, M.; Biles, C.; Droby, S.; Wilson, C.; Chalutz, E. Mode of action of the postharvest biocontrol yeast, Pichia guilliermondii. Characterization of attachment to Botrytis cinerea. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 1991, 39, 245–258. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  51. Calderon, C.E.; Rotem, N.; Harris, R.; Vela-Corcia, D.; Levy, M. Pseudozyma aphidis activates reactive oxygen species production, programmed cell death and morphological alterations in the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Mol. Plant Pathol. 2019, 20, 562–574. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  52. Junker, K.; Ruiz, G.B.; Lorenz, A.; Walker, L.; Gow, N.A.; Wendland, J. The mycoparasitic yeast Saccharomycopsis schoenii predates and kills multi-drug resistant Candida auris. Sci. Rep. 2018, 8, 14959. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  53. Vujanovic, V. Tremellomycetes yeasts in kernel ecological niche: Early indicators of enhanced competitiveness of endophytic and mycoparasitic symbionts against wheat pathobiota. Plants 2021, 10, 905. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  54. Botha, A. The importance and ecology of yeasts in soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 2011, 43, 1–8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  55. Sarabia, M.; Cazares, S.; González-Rodríguez, A.; Mora, F.; Carreón-Abud, Y.; Larsen, J. Plant growth promotion traits of rhizosphere yeasts and their response to soil characteristics and crop cycle in maize agroecosystems. Rhizosphere 2018, 6, 67–73. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  56. Rosa-Magri, M.M.; Avansini, S.H.; Lopes-Assad, M.L.; Tauk-Tornisielo, S.M.; Ceccato-Antonini, S.R. Release of potassium from rock powder by the yeast Torulaspora globosa. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. 2012, 55, 577–582. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  57. Fu, S.F.; Sun, P.F.; Lu, H.Y.; Wei, J.Y.; Xiao, H.S.; Fang, W.T.; Cheng, B.Y.; Chou, J.Y. Plant growth-promoting traits of yeasts isolated from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of Drosera spatulate. Fungal Biol. 2016, 120, 433–448. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  58. El-Maraghy, S.S.; Tohamy, T.A.; Hussein, K.A. Expression of SidD gene and physiological characterization of the rhizosphere plant growth-promoting yeasts. Heliyon 2020, 6, e04384. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  59. Khan, Z.; Guelich, G.; Phan, H.; Redman, R.; Doty, S.; Arencibia, A.D.; Chodak, M.; Perez-Artes, E.; Tsushima, S. Bacterial and yeast endophytes from poplar and willow promote growth in crop plants and grasses. Int. Sch. Res. Not. 2012, 2012, 890280. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  60. Knoth, J.L.; Kim, S.-H.; Ettl, G.J.; Doty, S.L. Effects of cross host species inoculation of nitrogen-fixing endophytes on growth and leaf physiology of maize. GCB Bioenerg. 2012, 5, 408–418. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  61. Nutaratat, P.; Srisuk, N.; Arunrattiyakorn, P.; Limtong, S. Plant growth promoting traits of epiphytic and endophytic yeasts isolated from rice and sugar cane leaves in Thailand. Fungal Biol. 2014, 118, 683–694. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  62. Ibraheim, S.K.A. Effect of foliar spray with some biostimulants on growth, yield and seeds quality of pea plants grown in sandy soil. Res. J. Appl. Sci. 2014, 10, 400–407. [Google Scholar]
  63. Złotek, U.; Świeca, M. Elicitation effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract on main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant and antiinflammatory potential of butter lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). J. Sci. Food Agric. 2016, 96, 2565–2572. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  64. Preininger, C.; Sauer, U.; Bejarano, A.; Berninger, T. Concepts and applications of foliar spray for microbial inoculants. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2018, 102, 7265–7282. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  65. Naik, K.; Mishra, S.; Srichandan, H.; Singh, P.K.; Sarangi, P.K. Plant growth promoting microbes: Potential link to sustainable agriculture and environment. Biocatal. Agric. Biotechnol. 2021, 21, 101326. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  66. Nutaratat, P.; Srisuk, N.; Arunrattiyakorn, P.; Limtong, S. Indole-3-acetic acid biosynthetic pathways in the basidiomycetous yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum. Arch. Microbiol. 2016, 198, 429–437. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  67. Pérez-Montaño, F.; Alías-Villegas, C.; Bellogín, R.A.; Del Cerro, P.; Espuny, M.R.; Jiménez-Guerrero, I.; López-Baena, F.J.; Ollero, F.J.; Cubo, T. Plant growth promotion in cereal and leguminous agricultural important plants: From microorganism capacities to crop production. Microbiol. Res. 2014, 169, 325–336. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  68. Leghari, S.J.; Wahocho, N.A.; Laghari, G.M.; HafeezLaghari, A.; Mustafa-Bhabhan, G.; Hussain-Talpur, K.; Bhutto, T.A.; Wahocho, S.A.; Lashari, A.A. Role of nitrogen for plant growth and development: A review. Adv. Environ. Biol. 2016, 10, 209–219. [Google Scholar]
  69. Mukherjee, S.; Sen, S.K. Exploration of novel rhizospheric yeast isolate as fertilizing soil inoculant for improvement of maize cultivation. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2015, 95, 1491–1499. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  70. Fernandez-San Millan, A.; Farran, I.; Larraya, L.; Ancin, M.; Arregui, L.M.; Veramendi, J. Plant growth-promoting traits of yeasts isolated from Spanish vineyards: Benefits for seedling development. Microbiol. Res. 2020, 237, 126480. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  71. Nascimento, F.X.; Rossi, M.J.; Soares, C.R.F.S.; McConkey, B.J.; Glick, B.R. New Insights into 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate (ACC) Deaminase Phylogeny, Evolution and Ecological Significance. PLoS ONE 2014, 9, e99168. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  72. Dai, Y.J.; Ji, W.W.; Chen, T.; Zhang, W.J.; Liu, Z.H.; Ge, F.; Sheng, Y. Metabolism of the neonicotinoid insecticides acetamiprid and thiacloprid by the yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain IM-2. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2010, 58, 2419–2425. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  73. Mothapo, N.; Chen, H.; Cubeta, M.A.; Grossman, J.M.; Fuller, F.; Shi, W. Phylogenetic, taxonomic and functional diversity of fungal denitrifiers and associated N2O production efficacy. Soil Biol. Biochem. 2015, 83, 160–175. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  74. Vero, S.; Garmendia, G.; Martínez-Silveira, A.; Cavello, I.; Wisniewski, M. Yeast activities involved in carbon and nitrogen cycles in Antarctica. In The Ecological Role of Micro-Organisms in the Antarctic Environment; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2019; pp. 45–64. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  75. Khan, M.S.; Zaidi, A.; Ahmad, E. Mechanism of phosphate solubilization and physiological functions of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms. In Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms: Principles and Application of Microphos Technology; Springer International Publishing: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2014; pp. 31–62. [Google Scholar]
  76. Lázaro, L.; Abbate, P.E.; Cogliatti, D.H.; Andrade, F.H. Relationship between yield, growth and spike weight in wheat under phosphorus deficiency and shading. J. Agric. Sci. 2010, 148, 83–93. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  77. Masood, T.A.R.I.Q. Effect of different phosphorus levels on the yield and yield components of maize. SJA 2011, 27, 167–170. [Google Scholar]
  78. Sharma, S.; Kumar, V.; Tripathi, R.B. Isolation of Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganism (PSMs). J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2011, 1, 90–95. [Google Scholar]
  79. Mundra, S.; Arora, R.; Stobdan, T. Solubilization of insoluble inorganic phosphates by a novel temperature-, pH-, and salt-tolerant yeast, Rhodotorula sp. PS4, isolated from seabuckthorn rhizosphere, growing in cold desert of Ladakh, India. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2011, 27, 2387–2396. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  80. El-Latif, A.; Mohamed, H.M. Molecular genetic identification of yeast strains isolated from egyptian soils for solubilization of inorganic phosphates and growth promotion of corn plants. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2011, 21, 55–61. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  81. Nieves-Cordones, M.; Al Shiblawi, F.R.; Sentenac, H. Roles and Transport of Sodium and Potassium in Plants. In The Alkali Metalions: Their Role for Life; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2016; pp. 291–324. [Google Scholar]
  82. Velázquez, E.; Silva, L.R.; Ramírez-Bahena, M.H.; Peix, A. Diversity of Potassium-Solubilizing Microorganisms and their Interactions with Plants. In Potassium Solubilizing Microorganisms for Sustainable Agriculture; Springer: New Delhi, India, 2016; pp. 99–110. [Google Scholar]
  83. Mohamed, H.M.; El-Homosy, R.F.; Abd-Ellatef, A.-E.H.; Salh, F.M.; Hussein, M.Y. Identification of yeast strains isolated from agricultural soils for releasing potassium-bearing minerals. Geomicrobiol. J. 2017, 34, 261–266. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  84. Rajkumar, M.; Ae, N.; Prasad, M.N.V.; Freitas, H. Potential of siderophoreproducing bacteria for improving heavy metal phytoextraction. Trends Biotechnol. 2010, 28, 142–149. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  85. Hafeez, B. Role of Zinc in Plant Nutrition—A Review. Am. J. Exp. Agric. 2013, 3, 374–391. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  86. Limtong, S.; Koowadjanakul, N. Yeasts from phylloplane and their capability to produce indole-3-acetic acid. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2012, 28, 3323–3335. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  87. Kasahara, H. Current aspects of auxin biosynthesis in plants. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2016, 80, 34–42. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  88. Bunsangiam, S.; Sakpuntoon, V.; Srisuk, N.; Ohashi, T.; Fujiyama, K.; Limtong, S. Biosynthetic Pathway of Indole-3-Acetic Acid in Basidiomycetous Yeast Rhodosporidiobolus Fluvialis. Mycobiology 2019, 47, 292–300. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  89. Streletskii, R.A.; Kachalkin, A.V.; Glushakova, A.M.; Yurkov, A.M.; Demin, V.V. Yeasts producing zeatin. PeerJ 2019, 7, e6474. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  90. Gupta, R.; Chakrabarty, S.K. Gibberellic acid in plant. Plant Signal. Behav. 2013, 8, e25504. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  91. Ramegowda, V.; Senthil-Kumar, M. The interactive effects of simultaneous biotic and abiotic stresses on plants: Mechanistic understanding from drought and pathogen combination. J. Plant Physiol. 2015, 176, 47–54. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  92. Francesca, S.; Arena, C.; Hay Mele, B.; Schettini, C.; Ambrosino, P.; Barone, A.; Rigano, M.M. The use of a plant-based biostimulant improves plant performances and fruit quality in tomato plants grown at elevated temperatures. Agronomy 2020, 10, 363. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  93. Silva, M.A.D.; Cavalcante, Í.H.; Mudo, L.E.; Paiva, V.B.D.; Amariz, R.A.; Cunha, J.G.D. Biostimulant alleviates abiotic stress of mango grown in semiarid environment. Rev. Bras. Eng. Agricola Ambient 2020, 24, 457–464. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  94. Kasim, W.; Tahany, M.H.; Khalil, M.S. Yeast extract and lithovit mineral fertilizer ameliorate the harmful effects of drought stress in wheat. Electron. J. Bus. Organ. 2020, 60, 889–903. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  95. Campobenedetto, C.; Agliassa, C.; Mannino, G.; Vigliante, I.; Contartese, V.; Secchi, F.; Bertea, C.M. A biostimulant based on seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum and Laminaria digitata) and yeast extracts mitigates water stress effects on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Agriculture 2021, 11, 557. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  96. Awad-Allah, E.F.A.; Attia, M.G.; Mahdy, A.M. Salinity stress alleviation by foliar bio-stimulant, proline and potassium nutrition promotes growth and yield quality of garlic plant. Open J. Soil Sci. 2020, 10, 443–458. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  97. El-Shawa, G.M.; Rashwan, E.M.; Abdelaal, K.A. Mitigating salt stress effects by exogenous application of proline and yeast extract on morpho-physiological, biochemical and anatomical characters of calendula plants. Sci. J. Flowers Ornam. Plants 2020, 7, 461–482. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  98. Liu, J.; Sui, Y.; Wisniewski, M.; Droby, S.; Liu, Y. Review: Utilization of antagonistic yeasts to manage postharvest fungal diseases of fruit. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2013, 167, 153–160. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  99. Pereira, A. Plant abiotic stress challenges from the changing environment. Front. Plant Sci. 2016, 7, 1123. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  100. Xu, J.; Zhang, S. Ethylene Biosynthesis and Regulation in Plants. In Ethylene in Plants; Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2015; pp. 1–25. [Google Scholar]
  101. Sharma, A.; Kumar, V.; Sidhu, G.P.S.; Kumar, R.; Kohli, S.K.; Yadav, P.; Bhardwaj, R. Abiotic stress management in plants: Role of ethylene. Mol. Plant Abiotic Stress Biol. Biotechnol. 2019, 185–208. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  102. Abeles FBMorgan, W.P.; Saltveit, M.E., Jr. Ethylene in Plant Biology; Academic Press: New York, NY, USA, 1992; p. 414. [Google Scholar]
  103. Deikman, J. Molecular mechanisms of ethylene regulation of gene transcription. Physiol. Plant. 2006, 100, 561–566. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  104. Mantri, N.; Patade, V.; Penna, S.; Ford, R.; Pang, E. Abiotic Stress Responses in Plants: Present and Future. In Abiotic Stress Responses in Plants; Springer: New York, NY, USA, 2012; pp. 1–19. [Google Scholar]
  105. Singh, R.P.; Shelke, G.M.; Kumar, A.; Jha, P.N. Biochemistry and genetics of ACC deaminase: A weapon to stress ethylene produced in plants. Front. Microbiol. 2015, 6, 937. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  106. Jacobson, C.B.; Pasternak, J.J.; Glick, B.R. Partial purification and characterization of ACC deaminase from the plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria Pseudomonas putida GR 12–2. Can. J. Microbiol. 1994, 40, 1019–1025. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  107. Amprayn, K.O.; Rose, M.T.; Kecskés, M.; Pereg, L.; Nguyen, H.T.; Kennedy, I.R. Plant growth promoting characteristics of soil yeast (Candida tropicalis HY) and its effectiveness for promoting rice growth. Appl. Soil Ecol. 2012, 61, 295–299. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  108. De Curtis, F.; De Cicco, V.; Lima, G. Efficacy of biocontrol yeasts combined with calcium silicate or sulphur for controlling durum wheat powdery mildew and increasing grain yield components. Field Crops Res. 2012, 134, 36–46. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  109. Wachowska, U.; Głowacka, K. Antagonistic interactions between Aureobasidium pullulans and Fusarium culmorum, a fungal pathogen of winter wheat. Biocontrol 2014, 59, 635–645. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  110. Ponsone, M.L.; Nally, M.C.; Chiotta, M.L.; Combina, M.; Kohl, J.; Chulze, S.N. Evaluation of the effectiveness of potential biocontrol yeasts against black sur rot and ochratoxin A occurring under greenhouse and field grape production conditions. Biol. Control 2016, 103, 78–85. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  111. Janisiewicz, W.J.; Kurtzman, C.P.; Buyer, J.S. Yeasts associated with nectarines and their potential for biological control of brown rot. Yeast 2010, 27, 389–398. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  112. Al-Ani, R.A.; Athab, M.A.; Matny, O.N. Management of potato virus Y (PVY) in potato by some biocontrol agents under field conditions. Adv. Environ. Biol. 2013, 7, 441–444. [Google Scholar]
  113. Gunders, D. Wasted: How America is losing up to 40 percent of its food from farm to fork to landfill. Nat. Res. Def. Counc. 2012, 26, 1–26. [Google Scholar]
  114. Cole, M.B.; Augustin, M.A.; Robertson, M.J.; Manners, J.M. The science of food security. NPJ Sci. Food 2018, 2, 14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  115. Kowalska, J.; Drożdżyński, D.; Remlein-Starosta, D.; Sas, L.; Malusa, E. Use of Cryptococcus albidus for controlling grey mould in the production and storage of organically grown strawberries. J. Plant Dis. Prot. 2012, 119, 174–178. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  116. Kalogiannis, S.; Tjamos, S.E.; Stergiou, A.; Antoniou, P.P.; Ziogas, B.N.; Tjamos, E.C. Selection and evaluation of phyllosphere yeasts as biocontrol agents against grey mould of tomato. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 2006, 116, 69–76. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  117. Nisiotou, A.A.; Nychas, G.-J.E. Yeast populations residing on healthy or Botrytis-infected grapes from a vineyard in Attica, Greece. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2007, 73, 2765–2768. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  118. Di Francesco, A.; Mari, M.; Ugolini, L.; Baraldi, E. Effect of Aureobasidium pullulans strains against Botrytis cinerea on kiwifruit during storage and on fruit nutritional composition. Food Microbiol. 2018, 72, 67–72. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  119. Wang, X.; Glawe, D.A.; Kramer, E.; Weller, D.; Okubara, P.A. Biological control of Botrytis cinerea: Interactions with native vineyard yeasts from Washington State. Phytopathology 2018, 108, 691–701. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  120. Marsico, A.D.; Velenosi, M.; Perniola, R.; Bergamini, C.; Sinonin, S.; David-Vaizant, V.; Ventura, M. Native vineyard non-Saccharomyces yeasts used for biological control of Botrytis cinerea in stored table grape. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 457. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  121. Sun, C.; Fu, D.; Jin, L.; Chen, M.; Zheng, X.; Yu, T. Chitin isolated from yeast cell wall induces the resistance of tomato fruit to Botrytis cinerea. Carbohydr. Polym. 2018, 199, 341–352. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  122. Zou, X.; Wei, Y.; Dai, K.; Xu, F.; Wang, H.; Shao, X. Yeasts from intertidal zone marine sediment demonstrate antagonistic activities against Botrytis cinerea in vitro and in strawberry fruit. Biol. Control 2021, 158, 104612. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  123. Tryfinopoulou, P.; Fengou, L.; Panagou, E.Z. Influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rhotodorula mucilaginosa on the growth and ochratoxin A production of Aspergillus carbonarius. LWT 2019, 105, 66–78. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  124. Li, Q.; Li, C.; Li, P.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zheng, X.; Sun, Y. The biocontrol effect of Sporidiobolus pararoseus Y16 against postharvest diseases in table grapes caused by Aspergillus niger and the possible mechanisms involved. Biol. Control 2017, 113, 18–25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  125. Jaibangyang, S.; Nasanit, R.; Limtong, S. Biological control of aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus by volatile organic compound-producing antagonistic yeasts. BioControl 2020, 65, 387. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  126. Assaf, L.R.; Pedrozo, L.P.; Nally, M.C.; Pesce, V.M.; Toro, M.E.; de Figueroa, L.C.; Vazquez, F. Use of yeasts from different environments for the control of Penicillium expansum on table grapes at storage temperature. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2020, 320, 108520. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  127. Alvarez, A.; Gelezoglo, R.; Garmendia, G.; González, M.L.; Magnoli, A.P.; Arrarte, E.; Vero, S. Role of Antarctic yeast in biocontrol of Penicillium expansum and patulin reduction of apples. Environ. Sustain. 2019, 2, 277–283. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  128. Hershkovitz, C.; Ben-Dayan, G.; Raphael, M.; Pasmanik-Chor, J.; Liu, E.; Belausov, R.; Aly, M.; Wisniewski, M.; Droby, S. Global changes in gene expression of grapefruit peel tissue in response to the yeast biocontrol agent Metschnikowia fructicola. Mol. Plant Pathol. 2012, 13, 338–349. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  129. Valantin-Morison, M.; Lasserre-Joulin, F.; Martinet, V.; Meiss, H.; Messéan, A.; Meynard, J.M.; Rouabah, A. Integrating Biocontrol into Cropping System Design. In Extended Biocontrol; Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2022; pp. 233–244. [Google Scholar]
  130. Boutet, M.; Parmentier-Cajaiba, A. Biocontrol in France: Prospects for Structuring a Developing Sector. In Extended Biocontrol; Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2022; pp. 219–232. [Google Scholar]
  131. Singh, B.; Singh, K. Microbial degradation of herbicides. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 2016, 42, 245–261. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  132. Bempelou, E.D.; Vontas, J.G.; Liapis, K.S.; Ziogas, V.N. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol by the epiphytic yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis and Rhodotorula rubra. Ecotoxicology 2018, 27, 1368–1378. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  133. Murphy, K.A.; Tabuloc, C.A.; Cervantes, K.R.; Chiu, J.C. Ingestion of genetically modified yeast symbiont reduces fitness of an insect pest via RNA interference. Sci. Rep. 2016, 6, 22587. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  134. Zhang, J.; Khan, S.A.; Heckel, D.G.; Bock, R. Next-generation insect-resistant plants: RNAi-mediated crop protection. Trends Biotechnol. 2017, 35, 871–882. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  135. Knight, A.L.; Witzgall, P. Combining mutualistic yeast and pathogenic virus—A novel method for codling moth control. J. Chem. Ecol. 2013, 39, 1019–1026. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  136. Holkenbrink, C.; Ding, B.J.; Wang, H.L.; Dam, M.I.; Petkevicius, K.; Kildegaard, K.R.; Wenning, L.; Sinkwitz, C.; Lorántfy, B.; Koutsoumpeli, E.; et al. Production of moth sex pheromones for pest control by yeast fermentation. Metab. Eng. 2020, 62, 312–321. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  137. Mateos Fernández, R.; Petek, M.; Gerasymenko, I.; Juteršek, M.; Baebler, Š.; Kallam, K.; Patron, N.J. Insect pest management in the age of synthetic biology. Plant Biotechnol. J. 2021, 20, 25–36. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  138. Jiang, Y.; Ma, J.; Wei, Y.; Liu, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Huang, Y.; Yan, X. De novo biosynthesis of sex pheromone components of Helicoverpa armigera through an artificial pathway in yeast. Green Chem. 2022, 24, 767–778. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  139. Koul, B.; Chopra, M.; Lamba, S. Microorganisms as Biocontrol Agents for Sustainable Agriculture. In Relationship between Microbes and the Environment for Sustainable Ecosystem Services; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2022; Volume 1, pp. 45–68. [Google Scholar]
  140. Rani, L.; Thapa, K.; Kanojia, N.; Sharma, N.; Singh, S.; Grewal, A.S.; Kaushal, J. An extensive review on the consequences of chemical pesticides on human health and environment. J. Clean. Prod. 2021, 283, 124657. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  141. Collatz, J.; Hinz, H.; Kaser, J.M.; Freimoser, F.M. Benefits and Risks of Biological Control. In Biological Control: Global Impacts, Challenges and Future Directions of Pest Management; CSIRO Publishing: Clayton South, Australia, 2021; pp. 142–165. [Google Scholar]
  142. Pandit, M.A.; Kumar, J.; Gulati, S.; Bhandari, N.; Mehta, P.; Katyal, R.; Kaur, J. Major Biological Control Strategies for Plant Pathogens. Pathogens 2022, 11, 273. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  143. Dubeaux, G.; Schroeder, J.I. Toward a better understanding of signaling networks in plants: Yeast has the power! EMBO J. 2019, 38, e102478. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  144. Chaudhary, P.; Chaudhary, A.; Bhatt, P.; Kumar, G.; Khatoon, H.; Rani, A.; Kumar, S.; Sharma, A. Assessment of Soil Health Indicators Under the Influence of Nanocompounds and Bacillus spp. in Field Condition. Front. Environ. Sci. 2022, 9, 769871. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  145. Agri, U.; Chaudhary, P.; Sharma, A.; Kukreti, B. Physiological response of maize plants and its rhizospheric microbiome under the influence of potential bioinoculants and nanochitosan. Plant Soil 2022, 474, 451–468. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Table 3. Commercially available yeast-based bioproducts for the control of plant diseases.
Table 3. Commercially available yeast-based bioproducts for the control of plant diseases.
YeastProduct Trade NameTarget PathogensCrops
A. pullulansBlossom ProtectE. amylovora, B. cinerea, Colletotrichum gloeosporioidesApples
A. pullulansBotectorB. cinereaApples, pears, grapevines, strawberries and other fruit
A. pullulansBoniProtectPezicula sp., Nectria sp., B. cinerea, M. fructigena, P. expansumApples, pears
C. oleophilaNexyP. expansum, B. cinereaApples, pears
M. fructicolaNoliB. cinerea, Monilinia spp.Soft fruit (including strawberry), stone fruit and table and wine grapes
S. cerevisiae
(cell walls)
RomeoB. cinerea, ErysiphalesGrapevines, lettuce, tomato, strawberry and cucumber
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Kowalska, J.; Krzymińska, J.; Tyburski, J. Yeasts as a Potential Biological Agent in Plant Disease Protection and Yield Improvement—A Short Review. Agriculture 2022, 12, 1404.

AMA Style

Kowalska J, Krzymińska J, Tyburski J. Yeasts as a Potential Biological Agent in Plant Disease Protection and Yield Improvement—A Short Review. Agriculture. 2022; 12(9):1404.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kowalska, Jolanta, Joanna Krzymińska, and Józef Tyburski. 2022. "Yeasts as a Potential Biological Agent in Plant Disease Protection and Yield Improvement—A Short Review" Agriculture 12, no. 9: 1404.

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop