African swine fever (ASF) in Poland has been a major concern for pig production for the last seven years. The main constrains in ASF eradication in Poland are due to the high density of wild boar in ASF-affected areas of the country. Other factors, responsible for long-distance ASF spread to new regions of the country, are mainly related to human-mediated activity and lack of awareness of the potential disease threat to pig production. In the case of pig holdings, the only effective measure of ASF prevention is strict implementation of biosecurity rules. Despite many efforts to implement these measures, the disease occurred in a number of voivodeships, poviats and counties of Poland, primarily in eastern Poland; however, starting from 2019, also in the western part of the country. Further recommendations to eradicate ASF in Poland or at least to minimize the economic loss caused by ASF in pig production include effective wild boar population management strategies along with the implementation of strict biosecurity measures. The observations from the last seven years of ASF epizootic in Poland clearly indicate that the disease could not have been effectively controlled in wild boar population and could only be restricted in domestic pig population following severe biosecurity rules. As for ASF spread control in wild boar population, the measures applied in other EU countries include active wild boar carcass search and disposal along with sanitary and reduction hunting. These measures have also been shown non-effective. The only solution for future sustainable pig production in Poland seems to be strict collaboration between pig producers, veterinary inspection, and hunting associations.
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