# Research on the Physical Characteristic Parameters of Banana Bunches for the Design and Development of Postharvesting Machinery and Equipment

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Cultivation and Morphological Characteristics of the Banana Plant

#### 2.2. Measurement of the Physical Characteristics Parameters of Banana Crop

#### 2.2.1. The Diameter of the Bunch Stalk

_{bs}) can, thus, be obtained as follows in Equation (1):

_{13i}is the distance between the first and third quadrantal points of the cross-sectional circle during the i-th measurement (mm); D

_{24i}is the distance between the second and fourth quadrantal points of the cross-sectional circle during the i-th measurement (mm); i is the number of measurements.

#### 2.2.2. The Thickness of Bunch Stalk Rind

_{1i}is the thickness of rind at the first quadrant point during the i-th measurement (mm); T

_{2i}is the thickness of rind at the second quadrant point during the i-th measurement (mm); T

_{3i}is the thickness of rind at the third quadrant point during the i-th measurement (mm); T

_{4i}is the thickness of rind at the fourth quadrant point during the i-th measurement (mm); i is the number of measurements.

#### 2.2.3. The Curvature of the Bunch Stalk

_{i}is the abscissa of the marker during the i-th measurement (mm); y

_{i}is the vertical ordinate of the marker during the i-th measurement (mm); i is the number of measurements.

#### 2.2.4. The Density of the Bunch Stalk

#### 2.2.5. The Moisture Content of the Bunch Stalk

_{i}is the mass of the sample measured for the i-th time before drying (kg); m

_{i}is the mass of the sample measured for the i-th time after drying (kg); i is the number of measurements.

#### 2.2.6. The Diameter of the Vascular Bundle

^{2}); s is the area of the reference frame (mm

^{2}); Q is the number of pixels in the filled region; q is the number of pixels in the reference frame.

_{vb}) can be obtained as follows in Equation (7):

#### 2.2.7. The Weight of the Bunch

#### 2.2.8. The Axial Distance of Banana Hands

#### 2.2.9. The Circumferential Angle of Banana Hands

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Statistical Analysis of the Diameter of Bunch Stalk

_{1}is the variety (specifically, 1 and 2 are the Brazilian banana and plantain banana varieties, respectively); X

_{2}is the moisture content; X

_{3}is the internode position.

#### 3.2. Statistical Analysis of the Thickness of Bunch Stalk Rind

_{4}is the variety (specifically, 1 and 2 are the Brazilian banana and plantain banana varieties, respectively); X

_{5}is the moisture content; X

_{6}is the internode position.

#### 3.3. Statistical Analysis of the Curvature of Bunch Stalks

#### 3.4. Statistical Analysis of the Density of Bunch Stalks

^{3}, and the variation range was 1.035~1.287 g/cm

^{3}. The average value of the density of inner tissue was 1.001 g/cm

^{3}, and the variation range was 0.788~1.279 g/cm

^{3}. The average value of the density of rind with a moisture content of 84% was 1.121 g/cm

^{3}, and the variation range was 1.007~1.256 g/cm

^{3}. The average value of the density of inner tissue was 0.978 g/cm

^{3}, and the variation range was 0.751~1.241 g/cm

^{3}. In general, the average value of the density of bunch stalks was 1.051 g/cm

^{3}, and the variation range was 0.873~1.281 g/cm

^{3}. In addition, by analyzing the values of the density of each segment on bunch stalks, we found that the density of nodes was higher than that of the internodes.

^{3}, with a standard deviation of 0.128 g/cm

^{3}and a coefficient of variation of 12.29%.

#### 3.5. Statistical Analysis of the Moisture Content of Bunch Stalks

_{1}is the moisture content of freshly picked Brazilian banana bunch stalks, and x is the internode position.

_{2}is the moisture content of Brazilian banana bunch stalks after three weeks of storage, and x is the internode position.

_{3}is the moisture content of Brazilian banana bunch stalks after four weeks of storage, and x is the internode position.

_{4}is the moisture content of freshly picked plantain banana bunch stalks, and x is the internode position.

_{5}is the moisture content of plantain banana bunch stalks after three weeks of storage, and x is the internode position.

_{6}is the moisture content of plantain banana bunch stalks after four weeks of storage, and x is the internode position.

_{7}is the variety (specifically, 1 and 2 are the Brazilian banana and plantain banana varieties, respectively; X

_{8}is the stated number of bunch stalks; X

_{9}is the internode position.

#### 3.6. Statistical Analysis of the Diameter of the Vascular Bundle

#### 3.7. Statistical Analysis of the Weight of Bunch

_{10}is the variety (specifically, 1 and 2 are the Brazilian banana and the plantain banana varieties, respectively); X

_{11}is the node position.

#### 3.8. Statistical Analysis of the Axial Distance of Banana Hands

_{12}is the variety (specifically, 1 and 2 are the Brazilian banana and plantain banana varieties, respectively); X

_{13}is the internode position.

#### 3.9. Statistical Analysis of the Circumferential Angle of Banana Hands

_{14}is the variety (specifically, 1 and 2 are the Brazilian banana and plantain banana varieties, respectively); X

_{15}is the node position.

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 1.**The planting and growth of banana plants in a new banana orchard. (

**a**) Planting of banana seedlings; (

**b**) growing banana plants in an orchard.

**Figure 9.**The relationship between the density of bunch stalks with a moisture content of 93% and the segments. (

**a**) The relationship between the density of rind and the segments; (

**b**) the relationship between the density of inner tissue and the segments.

**Figure 10.**The relationship between the density of bunch stalks with a moisture content of 84% and the segments. (

**a**) The relationship between the density of rind and the segments; (

**b**) the relationship between the density of inner tissue and the segments.

**Figure 12.**The relationship between the moisture content of bunch stalks and the internode positions.

**Figure 14.**The relationship between the diameter of the vascular bundle and the internode positions.

**Figure 20.**The relationship between the circumferential angle of the banana hand and the node position.

Model | Unstandardized Coefficients | R^{2} | F | Sig. (Significance) | Collinearity Statistics | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Beta | Standard Error | Tolerance | VIF (Variance Inflation Factor) | ||||

(Constant) | 17.090 | 4.453 | 0.973 | 385.956 | 0.001 | ||

Variety | −1.276 | 0.380 | 0.002 | 1.000 | 1.000 | ||

Moisture content | 0.143 | 0.049 | 0.006 | 1.000 | 1.000 | ||

Internode position | 3.750 | 0.111 | 0.000 | 1.000 | 1.000 |

Model | Unstandardized Coefficients | R^{2} | F | Sig. | Collinearity Statistics | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Beta | Standard Error | Tolerance | VIF | ||||

(Constant) | −2.905 | 0.586 | 0.973 | 241.159 | 0.000 | ||

Variety | −0.122 | 0.059 | 0.051 | 1.000 | 1.000 | ||

Moisture content | 0.034 | 0.007 | 0.000 | 1.000 | 1.000 | ||

Internode position | 0.451 | 0.017 | 0.000 | 1.000 | 1.000 |

Segments | 93% Moisture Content | 84% Moisture Content | Total Density (g/cm^{3}) | Node (Yes/No)? | |||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Density-Rind (g/cm^{3}) | Density-Inner Tissue (g/cm^{3}) | Density-Rind (g/cm^{3}) | Density-Inner Tissue (g/cm^{3}) | ||||||||

Mean | SD | Mean | SD | Mean | SD | Mean | SD | Mean | SD | ||

1 | 1.071 | 0.45 | 0.792 | 0.27 | 1.045 | 0.33 | 0.767 | 0.21 | 0.885 | 0.05 | Yes |

2 | 1.035 | 0.23 | 0.788 | 0.06 | 1.007 | 0.15 | 0.751 | 0.05 | 0.891 | 0.02 | No |

3 | 1.084 | 0.55 | 0.935 | 0.31 | 1.052 | 0.41 | 0.902 | 0.28 | 0.946 | 0.03 | Yes |

4 | 1.079 | 0.51 | 0.811 | 0.33 | 1.046 | 0.46 | 0.784 | 0.25 | 0.873 | 0.03 | No |

5 | 1.165 | 0.36 | 1.143 | 0.18 | 1.131 | 0.22 | 1.119 | 0.14 | 1.151 | 0.07 | Yes |

6 | 1.096 | 0.54 | 1.027 | 0.29 | 1.064 | 0.38 | 0.993 | 0.09 | 1.046 | 0.05 | No |

7 | 1.243 | 0.29 | 1.203 | 0.04 | 1.217 | 0.15 | 1.176 | 0.04 | 1.225 | 0.01 | Yes |

8 | 1.179 | 0.44 | 1.169 | 0.16 | 1.143 | 0.32 | 1.133 | 0.12 | 1.173 | 0.03 | No |

9 | 1.287 | 0.57 | 1.279 | 0.38 | 1.256 | 0.41 | 1.241 | 0.25 | 1.281 | 0.08 | Yes |

10 | 1.243 | 0.19 | 1.195 | 0.01 | 1.211 | 0.06 | 1.168 | 0.01 | 1.226 | 0.06 | No |

11 | 1.199 | 0.48 | 0.931 | 0.22 | 1.162 | 0.27 | 0.909 | 0.19 | 1.006 | 0.05 | Yes |

12 | 1.148 | 0.53 | 0.882 | 0.37 | 1.118 | 0.42 | 0.853 | 0.23 | 0.998 | 0.07 | No |

13 | 1.153 | 0.25 | 0.947 | 0.07 | 1.121 | 0.18 | 0.915 | 0.02 | 0.965 | 0.01 | Yes |

Model | Unstandardized Coefficients | R^{2} | F | Sig. | Collinearity Statistics | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Beta | Standard Error | Tolerance | VIF | ||||

(Constant) | 104.411 | 0.424 | 0.996 | 2927.345 | 0.000 | ||

Variety | −0.022 | 0.189 | 0.909 | 1.000 | 1.000 | ||

State | −10.832 | 0.116 | 0.000 | 1.000 | 1.000 | ||

Internode position | 0.165 | 0.055 | 0.005 | 1.000 | 1.000 |

Model | Unstandardized Coefficients | R^{2} | F | Sig. | Collinearity Statistics | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Beta | Standard Error | Tolerance | VIF | ||||

(Constant) | 1.396 | 0.229 | 0.970 | 176.589 | 0.000 | ||

Variety | 0.024 | 0.122 | 0.850 | 1.000 | 1.000 | ||

Node position | 0.575 | 0.031 | 0.000 | 1.000 | 1.000 |

Model | Unstandardized Coefficients | R^{2} | F | Sig. | Collinearity Statistics | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Beta | Standard Error | Tolerance | VIF | ||||

(Constant) | 36.580 | 5.720 | 0.966 | 128.944 | 0.000 | ||

Variety | 0.602 | 3.036 | 0.847 | 1.000 | 1.000 | ||

Internode position | 14.271 | 0.889 | 0.000 | 1.000 | 1.000 |

Model | Unstandardized Coefficients | R^{2} | F | Sig. | Collinearity Statistics | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Beta | Standard Error | Tolerance | VIF | ||||

(Constant) | 192.571 | 4.064 | 0.824 | 25.703 | 0.000 | ||

Variety | −2.143 | 2.173 | 0.345 | 1.000 | 1.000 | ||

Node position | −3.857 | 0.543 | 0.000 | 1.000 | 1.000 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Guo, J.; Fu, H.; Yang, Z.; Li, J.; Jiang, Y.; Jiang, T.; Liu, E.; Duan, J.
Research on the Physical Characteristic Parameters of Banana Bunches for the Design and Development of Postharvesting Machinery and Equipment. *Agriculture* **2021**, *11*, 362.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11040362

**AMA Style**

Guo J, Fu H, Yang Z, Li J, Jiang Y, Jiang T, Liu E, Duan J.
Research on the Physical Characteristic Parameters of Banana Bunches for the Design and Development of Postharvesting Machinery and Equipment. *Agriculture*. 2021; 11(4):362.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11040362

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Guo, Jie, Han Fu, Zhou Yang, Jun Li, Yinlong Jiang, Tingting Jiang, Enxiu Liu, and Jieli Duan.
2021. "Research on the Physical Characteristic Parameters of Banana Bunches for the Design and Development of Postharvesting Machinery and Equipment" *Agriculture* 11, no. 4: 362.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11040362