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Article

Measuring Canopy Geometric Structure Using Optical Sensors Mounted on Terrestrial Vehicles: A Case Study in Vineyards

1
INESC Technology and Science (INESC TEC), 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
2
School of Science and Technology, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD), 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
3
Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto (FEUP), 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
4
Institute of Sciences and Technologies for Sustainable Energy and Mobility, National Research Council (STEMS-CNR), 10135 Turin, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Campus da FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias 400, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal.
Academic Editor: Paolo Storchi
Agriculture 2021, 11(3), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11030208
Received: 5 February 2021 / Revised: 25 February 2021 / Accepted: 26 February 2021 / Published: 4 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Viticulture and Enology: Technologies and Applications)
Smart and precision agriculture concepts require that the farmer measures all relevant variables in a continuous way and processes this information in order to build better prescription maps and to predict crop yield. These maps feed machinery with variable rate technology to apply the correct amount of products in the right time and place, to improve farm profitability. One of the most relevant information to estimate the farm yield is the Leaf Area Index. Traditionally, this index can be obtained from manual measurements or from aerial imagery: the former is time consuming and the latter requires the use of drones or aerial services. This work presents an optical sensing-based hardware module that can be attached to existing autonomous or guided terrestrial vehicles. During the normal operation, the module collects periodic geo-referenced monocular images and laser data. With that data a suggested processing pipeline, based on open-source software and composed by Structure from Motion, Multi-View Stereo and point cloud registration stages, can extract Leaf Area Index and other crop-related features. Additionally, in this work, a benchmark of software tools is made. The hardware module and pipeline were validated considering real data acquired in two vineyards—Portugal and Italy. A dataset with sensory data collected by the module was made publicly available. Results demonstrated that: the system provides reliable and precise data on the surrounding environment and the pipeline is capable of computing volume and occupancy area from the acquired data. View Full-Text
Keywords: leaf area index; multi-view stereo; optical sensing; photogrammetry; precision agriculture; structure from motion leaf area index; multi-view stereo; optical sensing; photogrammetry; precision agriculture; structure from motion
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MDPI and ACS Style

da Silva, D.Q.; Aguiar, A.S.; dos Santos, F.N.; Sousa, A.J.; Rabino, D.; Biddoccu, M.; Bagagiolo, G.; Delmastro, M. Measuring Canopy Geometric Structure Using Optical Sensors Mounted on Terrestrial Vehicles: A Case Study in Vineyards. Agriculture 2021, 11, 208. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11030208

AMA Style

da Silva DQ, Aguiar AS, dos Santos FN, Sousa AJ, Rabino D, Biddoccu M, Bagagiolo G, Delmastro M. Measuring Canopy Geometric Structure Using Optical Sensors Mounted on Terrestrial Vehicles: A Case Study in Vineyards. Agriculture. 2021; 11(3):208. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11030208

Chicago/Turabian Style

da Silva, Daniel Q., André S. Aguiar, Filipe N. dos Santos, Armando J. Sousa, Danilo Rabino, Marcella Biddoccu, Giorgia Bagagiolo, and Marco Delmastro. 2021. "Measuring Canopy Geometric Structure Using Optical Sensors Mounted on Terrestrial Vehicles: A Case Study in Vineyards" Agriculture 11, no. 3: 208. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11030208

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