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Open AccessArticle

Clinicopathological Features and Prognostic Factors of Primary Acral Melanomas in Caucasians

1
Department of Soft Tissue/Bone Sarcoma and Melanoma, Maria Sklodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology, 02-781 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Maria Sklodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology, 02-781 Warsaw, Poland
3
Diagnostic Hematology Department, Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
4
Department of Experimental Pharmacology, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 2996; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092996
Received: 20 August 2020 / Revised: 31 August 2020 / Accepted: 10 September 2020 / Published: 16 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Dermatology)
Background: Cutaneous melanomas located on the acral part of extremities (hand and foot melanoma; HFM) comprise a rare group within all melanomas in Caucasians. HFM is associated with a poor prognosis. We aimed to evaluate clinicopathological features, long-term outcomes, and prognostic factors in primary HFM in Caucasians. Methods: Medical records of all consecutive patients treated between 1997 and 2014 were revised. Patients were diagnosed with primary cutaneous melanoma at I-II clinical stage, and sentinel lymph node biopsy was conducted. The analysis was performed to define the clinicopathological factors influencing outcomes in the HFM and subungual cohort. Among 2537 consecutive patients diagnosed with primary cutaneous melanoma, 247 cases of HFM (9.7%) were found, with a median follow-up time of 7.8 years. Results: Median primary tumor Breslow thickness in subungual melanomas and HFMs was 4.0 mm and 3.3 mm, respectively, significantly higher than in the entire population (median 2.2 mm; p < 0.01). In the HFM group, 37.6% of tumors were ulcerated. Metastases to sentinel lymph node (SLN) were found in 28.3% of HFMs. The 10-year overall survival rate in the HFM group and subungual melanomas was 48.1% and 49.3%, respectively, compared to 63.0% in non-HFM melanomas. Conclusions: Our results confirm that patients with HFMs display worse overall survival compared to the entire melanoma population, with male gender and positive SLN biopsy status acting as independent negative prognostic factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: melanoma; hand and foot melanoma; cutaneous melanoma; acral melanoma; subungual melanoma; nail apparatus melanoma melanoma; hand and foot melanoma; cutaneous melanoma; acral melanoma; subungual melanoma; nail apparatus melanoma
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Borkowska, A.M.; Szumera-Ciećkiewicz, A.; Spałek, M.J.; Teterycz, P.; Czarnecka, A.M.; Rutkowski, P.Ł. Clinicopathological Features and Prognostic Factors of Primary Acral Melanomas in Caucasians. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 2996.

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