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Quantification of Death Risk in Relation to Sex, Pre-Existing Cardiovascular Diseases and Risk Factors in COVID-19 Patients: Let’s Take Stock and See Where We Are

1
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht University, Universiteitssingel 50, 6229 ER Maastricht, The Netherlands
2
Grande Ospedale Metropolitano, 89124 Reggio Calabria, Italy
3
Cardiogy Complex Unit, Garibaldi Nesima Hospital, 95122 Catania, Italy
4
Heart Care Foundation Onlus, 50121 Florence, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Amalia Ioanna Moula and Linda Renata Micali equally contributed to this work.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 2685; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092685
Received: 6 July 2020 / Revised: 6 August 2020 / Accepted: 17 August 2020 / Published: 19 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) might be more susceptible to infection from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and have higher mortality rates. Nevertheless, the risk of mortality has not been previously quantified. The aim of this meta-analysis is to quantify the risk of mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. A meta-analysis was conducted analyzing the impact of (1) sex, (2) age, (3) CVD with coronary artery disease (CAD), (4) CAD alone, (5) CVD without CAD, (6) hypertension, (7) cerebrovascular diseases, and (8) diabetes on mortality. Relative risk was assessed for dichotomous variables, mean difference for continuous variables. Twenty-six studies were included, encompassing 8497 patients. Males had 16% higher risk of mortality than females (p < 0.05) and elderly patients had higher chance of dying than younger patients (p < 0.0001). Patients with overall CVD have a 1.96-fold higher mortality risk (p < 0.0001). CAD increases risk of mortality by 1.90-fold (p < 0.05). CVD-CAD were found to increase risk up to 2.03-fold (p < 0.05). Hypertension, cerebrovascular disease and diabetes increase the risk of death up to 1.73-fold, 1.76-fold and 1.59-fold, respectively (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p < 0.05, respectively). Sex, age, presence of CAD and/or other types of CVD, hypertension, cerebrovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus increase mortality in patients with COVID-19. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; cardiovascular diseases; mortality; hypertension; diabetes mellitus COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; cardiovascular diseases; mortality; hypertension; diabetes mellitus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moula, A.I.; Micali, L.R.; Matteucci, F.; Lucà, F.; Rao, C.M.; Parise, O.; Parise, G.; Gulizia, M.M.; Gelsomino, S. Quantification of Death Risk in Relation to Sex, Pre-Existing Cardiovascular Diseases and Risk Factors in COVID-19 Patients: Let’s Take Stock and See Where We Are. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 2685. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092685

AMA Style

Moula AI, Micali LR, Matteucci F, Lucà F, Rao CM, Parise O, Parise G, Gulizia MM, Gelsomino S. Quantification of Death Risk in Relation to Sex, Pre-Existing Cardiovascular Diseases and Risk Factors in COVID-19 Patients: Let’s Take Stock and See Where We Are. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(9):2685. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092685

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moula, Amalia I., Linda R. Micali, Francesco Matteucci, Fabiana Lucà, Carmelo M. Rao, Orlando Parise, Gianmarco Parise, Michele M. Gulizia, and Sandro Gelsomino. 2020. "Quantification of Death Risk in Relation to Sex, Pre-Existing Cardiovascular Diseases and Risk Factors in COVID-19 Patients: Let’s Take Stock and See Where We Are" Journal of Clinical Medicine 9, no. 9: 2685. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092685

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