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Article

Virtual Reality Aggression Prevention Therapy (VRAPT) versus Waiting List Control for Forensic Psychiatric Inpatients: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

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Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
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Forensic Psychiatric Center (FPC) Dr. S. van Mesdag, Helperlinie 2, 9722 AZ Groningen, The Netherlands
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Department of Developmental Psychology, Tilburg University, Prof Cobbenhagenlaan 225, P.O. Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, The Netherlands
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Fivoor, Fivoor Science & Treatment Innovation, Kijvelandsekade 1, 3172 AB Poortugaal, The Netherlands
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Division Diagnostics Research and Education, Forensic Psychiatric Hospital Pompefoundation, Weg door Jonkerbos 55, 6532 CN Nijmegen, The Netherlands
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Behavioral Science Institute (BSI) of Radboud University, P.O. Box 9104, 6500 HE Nijmegen, The Netherlands
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Forensic Psychiatric Center (FPC) de Rooyse Wissel, P.O. Box 433, 5800AK Venray, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(7), 2258; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072258
Received: 23 June 2020 / Revised: 9 July 2020 / Accepted: 13 July 2020 / Published: 16 July 2020
Many forensic psychiatric inpatients have difficulties regulating aggressive behavior. Evidence of effective aggression treatments is limited. We designed and investigated the effectiveness of a transdiagnostic application of a virtual reality aggression prevention training (VRAPT). In this randomized controlled trial at four Dutch forensic psychiatric centers, 128 inpatients with aggressive behavior were randomly assigned to VRAPT (N = 64) or waiting list control group (N = 64). VRAPT consisted of 16 one-hour individual treatment sessions twice a week. Assessments were done at baseline, post-treatment and at 3-month follow-up. Primary outcome measures were aggressive behavior observed by staff and self-reported aggressive behavior. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial was registered in the Dutch Trial Register (NTR, TC = 6340). Participants were included between 1 March 2017, and 31 December 2018. Compared to waiting list, VRAPT did not significantly decrease in self-reported or observed aggressive behavior (primary outcomes). Hostility, anger control, and non-planning impulsiveness improved significantly in the VRAPT group compared to the control group at post-treatment. Improvements were not maintained at 3-month follow-up. Results suggest that VRAPT does not decrease aggressive behavior in forensic inpatients. However, there are indications that VRAPT temporarily influences anger control skills, impulsivity and hostility. View Full-Text
Keywords: aggressive behavior; forensic psychiatry; social information processing model; randomized controlled trial; virtual reality; severe psychopathology aggressive behavior; forensic psychiatry; social information processing model; randomized controlled trial; virtual reality; severe psychopathology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Klein Tuente, S.; Bogaerts, S.; Bulten, E.; Keulen-de Vos, M.; Vos, M.; Bokern, H.; IJzendoorn, S.v.; Geraets, C.N.W.; Veling, W. Virtual Reality Aggression Prevention Therapy (VRAPT) versus Waiting List Control for Forensic Psychiatric Inpatients: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 2258. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072258

AMA Style

Klein Tuente S, Bogaerts S, Bulten E, Keulen-de Vos M, Vos M, Bokern H, IJzendoorn Sv, Geraets CNW, Veling W. Virtual Reality Aggression Prevention Therapy (VRAPT) versus Waiting List Control for Forensic Psychiatric Inpatients: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(7):2258. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072258

Chicago/Turabian Style

Klein Tuente, Stéphanie, Stefan Bogaerts, Erik Bulten, Marije Keulen-de Vos, Maarten Vos, Hein Bokern, Sarah v. IJzendoorn, Chris N.W. Geraets, and Wim Veling. 2020. "Virtual Reality Aggression Prevention Therapy (VRAPT) versus Waiting List Control for Forensic Psychiatric Inpatients: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial" Journal of Clinical Medicine 9, no. 7: 2258. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072258

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