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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

COVID-19 and Congenital Heart Disease: Results from a Nationwide Survey

1
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, “Magna Graecia” University, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
2
Pediatric cardiology and ACHD, Cardiovascular Department, ASST Papa Giovanni 23, 24127 Bergamo, Italy
3
ACHD UNIT-Pediatric and Adult Congenital Heart Centre, IRCCS-Policlinico San Donato, 20097 Milan, Italy
4
Pediatric and Congenital Cardiology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Ancona, 60126 Ancona, Italy
5
Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery Department, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, 00146 Rome, Italy
6
Department of Imaging, Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, 00146 Rome, Italy
7
Mediterranean Pediatric Cardiology Center, Bambino Gesù Pediatric Hospital, 98039 Taormina (ME), Italy
8
Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, University of Padua, 35122 Padua, Italy
9
Department of Cardiology, University of Palermo, 90133 Palermo, Italy
10
Department of Human Pathology of Adulthood and Childhood, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy
11
Department of Cardiology, Luigi Vanvitelli University of Naples, Monaldi Hospital, 80131 Naples, Italy
12
University College of Dublin, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin 4, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(6), 1774; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061774
Received: 1 May 2020 / Revised: 1 June 2020 / Accepted: 5 June 2020 / Published: 8 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
Background. The pandemic of Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is challenging, given the large number of hospitalized patients. Cardiovascular co-morbidities are linked to a higher mortality risk. Thus, patients with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) might represent a high-risk population. Nevertheless, no data about them are available, yet. Hence, we conducted a nationwide survey to assess clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with congenital heart disease affected by COVID-19. Methods and Results. This is a multi-centre, observational, nationwide survey, involving high-volume Italian CHD centres. COVID-19 diagnosis was defined as either “clinically suspected” or “confirmed”, where a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) test had been performed and was positive. Cardiovascular comorbidities were observed among adult patients—atrial fibrillation (seven; 9%), hypertension (five; 7%), obesity (seven; 9%) and diabetes (one; 1%)—but were absent among children. Cardiovascular complications were mainly observed in the “confirmed” COVID-19+ group, consisting of heart failure (9%), palpitations/arrhythmias (3%), stroke/TIA (3%) and pulmonary hypertension (3%). Cardiovascular symptoms such as chest pain (1%), myocardial injury (1%) and pericardial effusion (1%) were also recorded. On the contrary, CHD patients from the clinically suspected COVID-19 group presented no severe symptoms or complications. Conclusions. Despite previous reports pointing to a higher case-fatality rate among patients with cardiovascular co-morbidities, we observed a mild COVID-19 clinical course in our cohort of CHD patients. Although these results should be confirmed in larger cohorts to investigate the underlying mechanisms, the findings of low cardiovascular complications rates and no deaths are reassuring for CHD patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: congenital heart disease; COVID-19; cardiovascular complications congenital heart disease; COVID-19; cardiovascular complications
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Sabatino, J.; Ferrero, P.; Chessa, M.; Bianco, F.; Ciliberti, P.; Secinaro, A.; Oreto, L.; Avesani, M.; Bucciarelli, V.; Calcaterra, G.; Calabrò, M.P.; Russo, M.G.; Bassareo, P.P.; Guccione, P.; Indolfi, C.; Di Salvo, G. COVID-19 and Congenital Heart Disease: Results from a Nationwide Survey. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 1774.

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