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COVID-19 and Congenital Heart Disease: Results from a Nationwide Survey

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, “Magna Graecia” University, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
Pediatric cardiology and ACHD, Cardiovascular Department, ASST Papa Giovanni 23, 24127 Bergamo, Italy
ACHD UNIT-Pediatric and Adult Congenital Heart Centre, IRCCS-Policlinico San Donato, 20097 Milan, Italy
Pediatric and Congenital Cardiology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Ancona, 60126 Ancona, Italy
Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery Department, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, 00146 Rome, Italy
Department of Imaging, Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, 00146 Rome, Italy
Mediterranean Pediatric Cardiology Center, Bambino Gesù Pediatric Hospital, 98039 Taormina (ME), Italy
Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, University of Padua, 35122 Padua, Italy
Department of Cardiology, University of Palermo, 90133 Palermo, Italy
Department of Human Pathology of Adulthood and Childhood, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy
Department of Cardiology, Luigi Vanvitelli University of Naples, Monaldi Hospital, 80131 Naples, Italy
University College of Dublin, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin 4, Ireland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(6), 1774;
Received: 1 May 2020 / Revised: 1 June 2020 / Accepted: 5 June 2020 / Published: 8 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
Background. The pandemic of Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is challenging, given the large number of hospitalized patients. Cardiovascular co-morbidities are linked to a higher mortality risk. Thus, patients with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) might represent a high-risk population. Nevertheless, no data about them are available, yet. Hence, we conducted a nationwide survey to assess clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with congenital heart disease affected by COVID-19. Methods and Results. This is a multi-centre, observational, nationwide survey, involving high-volume Italian CHD centres. COVID-19 diagnosis was defined as either “clinically suspected” or “confirmed”, where a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) test had been performed and was positive. Cardiovascular comorbidities were observed among adult patients—atrial fibrillation (seven; 9%), hypertension (five; 7%), obesity (seven; 9%) and diabetes (one; 1%)—but were absent among children. Cardiovascular complications were mainly observed in the “confirmed” COVID-19+ group, consisting of heart failure (9%), palpitations/arrhythmias (3%), stroke/TIA (3%) and pulmonary hypertension (3%). Cardiovascular symptoms such as chest pain (1%), myocardial injury (1%) and pericardial effusion (1%) were also recorded. On the contrary, CHD patients from the clinically suspected COVID-19 group presented no severe symptoms or complications. Conclusions. Despite previous reports pointing to a higher case-fatality rate among patients with cardiovascular co-morbidities, we observed a mild COVID-19 clinical course in our cohort of CHD patients. Although these results should be confirmed in larger cohorts to investigate the underlying mechanisms, the findings of low cardiovascular complications rates and no deaths are reassuring for CHD patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: congenital heart disease; COVID-19; cardiovascular complications congenital heart disease; COVID-19; cardiovascular complications
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sabatino, J.; Ferrero, P.; Chessa, M.; Bianco, F.; Ciliberti, P.; Secinaro, A.; Oreto, L.; Avesani, M.; Bucciarelli, V.; Calcaterra, G.; Calabrò, M.P.; Russo, M.G.; Bassareo, P.P.; Guccione, P.; Indolfi, C.; Di Salvo, G. COVID-19 and Congenital Heart Disease: Results from a Nationwide Survey. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 1774.

AMA Style

Sabatino J, Ferrero P, Chessa M, Bianco F, Ciliberti P, Secinaro A, Oreto L, Avesani M, Bucciarelli V, Calcaterra G, Calabrò MP, Russo MG, Bassareo PP, Guccione P, Indolfi C, Di Salvo G. COVID-19 and Congenital Heart Disease: Results from a Nationwide Survey. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(6):1774.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sabatino, Jolanda, Paolo Ferrero, Massimo Chessa, Francesco Bianco, Paolo Ciliberti, Aurelio Secinaro, Lilia Oreto, Martina Avesani, Valentina Bucciarelli, Giuseppe Calcaterra, Maria Pia Calabrò, Maria Giovanna Russo, Pier Paolo Bassareo, Paolo Guccione, Ciro Indolfi, and Giovanni Di Salvo. 2020. "COVID-19 and Congenital Heart Disease: Results from a Nationwide Survey" Journal of Clinical Medicine 9, no. 6: 1774.

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