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COVID-19: Specific and Non-Specific Clinical Manifestations and Symptoms: The Current State of Knowledge

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Chair and Department of Anatomy, Medical University of Lublin, 20-090 Lublin, Poland
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Chair and 1st Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Early Intervention, Medical University of Lublin, Gluska Street 1, 20-439 Lublin, Poland
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Department of Clinical Neuropsychiatry, Medical University of Lublin, Gluska Street 1, 20-439 Lublin, Poland
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Chair and Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Lublin, 20-090 Lublin, Poland
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Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Lublin, Aleje Racławickie 1, 20-059 Lublin, Poland
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Clinica Medica A. Murri, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University of Bari Aldo Moro Medical School, 70126 Bari, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(6), 1753; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061753
Received: 30 April 2020 / Revised: 30 May 2020 / Accepted: 3 June 2020 / Published: 5 June 2020
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become an epidemiological threat and a worldwide concern. SARS-CoV-2 has spread to 210 countries worldwide and more than 6,500,000 confirmed cases and 384,643 deaths have been reported, while the number of both confirmed and fatal cases is continually increasing. COVID-19 is a viral disease that can affect every age group—from infants to the elderly—resulting in a wide spectrum of various clinical manifestations. COVID-19 might present different degrees of severity—from mild or even asymptomatic carriers, even to fatal cases. The most common complications include pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Fever, dry cough, muscle weakness, and chest pain are the most prevalent and typical symptoms of COVID-19. However, patients might also present atypical symptoms that can occur alone, which might indicate the possible SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this paper is to review and summarize all of the findings regarding clinical manifestations of COVID-19 patients, which include respiratory, neurological, olfactory and gustatory, gastrointestinal, ophthalmic, dermatological, cardiac, and rheumatologic manifestations, as well as specific symptoms in pediatric patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2); coronavirus; RNA; epidemic; pandemics; symptoms; outbreak; diagnosis; public health Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2); coronavirus; RNA; epidemic; pandemics; symptoms; outbreak; diagnosis; public health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Baj, J.; Karakuła-Juchnowicz, H.; Teresiński, G.; Buszewicz, G.; Ciesielka, M.; Sitarz, E.; Forma, A.; Karakuła, K.; Flieger, W.; Portincasa, P.; Maciejewski, R. COVID-19: Specific and Non-Specific Clinical Manifestations and Symptoms: The Current State of Knowledge. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 1753.

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