Next Article in Journal
Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Cortisol Stress Reactivity in Response to the Trier Social Stress Test in Inpatients with Major Depressive Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Next Article in Special Issue
Risk Stratification in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Insights from Genetic Analysis and Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing
Previous Article in Journal
Selected Atherosclerosis-Related Diseases May Differentially Affect the Relationship between Plasma Advanced Glycation End Products, Receptor sRAGE, and Uric Acid
Previous Article in Special Issue
Functional Role of Natriuretic Peptides in Risk Assessment and Prognosis of Patients with Mitral Regurgitation
Open AccessReview

Hypertension, Thrombosis, Kidney Failure, and Diabetes: Is COVID-19 an Endothelial Disease? A Comprehensive Evaluation of Clinical and Basic Evidence

1
Department of Advanced Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 80100 Naples, Italy
2
Department of Medical Sciences, International University of Health and Medical Sciences “Saint Camillus”, 00131 Rome, Italy
3
Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, International Translational Research and Medical Education Academic Research Unit (ITME), “Federico II” University, 80131 Naples, Italy
4
Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Wilf Family Cardiovascular Research Institute, New York, NY 10461, USA
5
Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Fleischer Institute for Diabetes and Metabolism (FIDAM), Montefiore University Hospital, New York, NY 10461, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1417; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051417
Received: 12 April 2020 / Revised: 2 May 2020 / Accepted: 4 May 2020 / Published: 11 May 2020
The symptoms most commonly reported by patients affected by coronavirus disease (COVID-19) include cough, fever, and shortness of breath. However, other major events usually observed in COVID-19 patients (e.g., high blood pressure, arterial and venous thromboembolism, kidney disease, neurologic disorders, and diabetes mellitus) indicate that the virus is targeting the endothelium, one of the largest organs in the human body. Herein, we report a systematic and comprehensive evaluation of both clinical and preclinical evidence supporting the hypothesis that the endothelium is a key target organ in COVID-19, providing a mechanistic rationale behind its systemic manifestations. View Full-Text
Keywords: ACE2, acute kidney injury; blood pressure; catepsin; coronavirus; COVID; cytokine storm; endothelium; heparin; Kawasaki disease ACE2, acute kidney injury; blood pressure; catepsin; coronavirus; COVID; cytokine storm; endothelium; heparin; Kawasaki disease
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Sardu, C.; Gambardella, J.; Morelli, M.B.; Wang, X.; Marfella, R.; Santulli, G. Hypertension, Thrombosis, Kidney Failure, and Diabetes: Is COVID-19 an Endothelial Disease? A Comprehensive Evaluation of Clinical and Basic Evidence. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 1417.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop