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A Role for Gut Microbiome Fermentative Pathways in Fatty Liver Disease Progression

1
Gastroenterology and Hepatology Department, Marqués de Valdecilla University Hospital, Clinical and Translational Digestive Research Group, IDIVAL, 39008 Santander, Spain
2
Instituto de Biomedicina y Biotecnología de Cantabria (IBBTEC), Universidad de Cantabria, 39011 Santander, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1369; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051369
Received: 29 March 2020 / Revised: 24 April 2020 / Accepted: 3 May 2020 / Published: 7 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis)
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a multifactorial disease in which environmental and genetic factors are involved. Although the molecular mechanisms involved in NAFLD onset and progression are not completely understood, the gut microbiome (GM) is thought to play a key role in the process, influencing multiple physiological functions. GM alterations in diversity and composition directly impact disease states with an inflammatory course, such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, how the GM influences liver disease susceptibility is largely unknown. Similarly, the impact of strategies targeting the GM for the treatment of NASH remains to be evaluated. This review provides a broad insight into the role of gut microbiota in NASH pathogenesis, as a diagnostic tool, and as a therapeutic target in this liver disease. We highlight the idea that the balance in metabolic fermentations can be key in maintaining liver homeostasis. We propose that an overabundance of alcohol-fermentation pathways in the GM may outcompete healthier, acid-producing members of the microbiota. In this way, GM ecology may precipitate a self-sustaining vicious cycle, boosting liver disease progression. View Full-Text
Keywords: NAFLD; gut microbiome; microbial metabolic pathway; microbiome-based signature; fecal microbiota transplantation NAFLD; gut microbiome; microbial metabolic pathway; microbiome-based signature; fecal microbiota transplantation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Iruzubieta, P.; Medina, J.M.; Fernández-López, R.; Crespo, J.; de la Cruz, F. A Role for Gut Microbiome Fermentative Pathways in Fatty Liver Disease Progression. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 1369. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051369

AMA Style

Iruzubieta P, Medina JM, Fernández-López R, Crespo J, de la Cruz F. A Role for Gut Microbiome Fermentative Pathways in Fatty Liver Disease Progression. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(5):1369. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051369

Chicago/Turabian Style

Iruzubieta, Paula, Juan M. Medina, Raúl Fernández-López, Javier Crespo, and Fernando de la Cruz. 2020. "A Role for Gut Microbiome Fermentative Pathways in Fatty Liver Disease Progression" Journal of Clinical Medicine 9, no. 5: 1369. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051369

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