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Article

Clinical Characteristics and Disability Progression of Early- and Late-Onset Multiple Sclerosis Compared to Adult-Onset Multiple Sclerosis

1
Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461, Iran
2
Universal Council of Epidemiology (UCE), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14197-33151, Iran
3
Department of Neurology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461, Iran
4
Center of Depression, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics (UPK), University of Basel, 4002 Basel, Switzerland
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Division of Sport Science and Psychosocial Health, Department of Sport, Exercise, and Health, University of Basel, 4032 Basel, Switzerland
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Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS), Kermanshah 6719851351, Iran
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Sleep Disorders Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS), Kermanshah 6719851351, Iran
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School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran 1416753955, Iran
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Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd 74877-94149, Iran
10
Faculty of Pharmacy, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz 6135715794, Iran
11
Departments of Physical Therapy, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35209, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The authors share the first authorship.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1326; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051326
Received: 28 March 2020 / Revised: 26 April 2020 / Accepted: 27 April 2020 / Published: 2 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Neurology)
Background: Compared to the adult onset of multiple sclerosis (AOMS), both early-onset (EOMS) and late-onset (LOMS) are much less frequent, but are often under- or misdiagnosed. The aims of the present study were: 1. To compare demographic and clinical features of individuals with EOMS, AOMS and LOMS, and 2. To identify predictors for disability progression from relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) to secondary progressive MS (SPMS). Method: Data were taken from the Isfahan Hakim MS database. Cases were classified as EOMS (MS onset 18 years), LOMS (MS onset >50 years) and AOMS (MS >18 and 50 years). Patients’ demographic and clinical (initial symptoms; course of disease; disease patterns from MRI; disease progress) information were gathered and assessed. Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazard regressions were conducted to determine differences between the three groups in the time lapse in conversion from relapsing remitting MS to secondary progressive MS. Results: A total of 2627 MS cases were assessed; of these 127 were EOMS, 84 LOMS and 2416 AOMS. The mean age of those with EOMS was 14.5 years; key symptoms were visual impairments, brain stem dysfunction, sensory disturbances and motor dysfunctions. On average, 24.6 years after disease onset, 14.2% with relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) were diagnosed with secondary progressive MS (SPMS). The key predictor variable was a higher Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score at disease onset. Compared to individuals with AOMS and LOMS, those with EOMS more often had one or two relapses in the first two years, and more often gadolinium-enhancing brain lesions. For individuals with AOMS, mean age was 29.4 years; key symptoms were sensory disturbances, motor dysfunctions and visual impairments. On average, 20.5 years after disease onset, 15.6% with RRMS progressed to SPMS. The key predictors at disease onset were: a higher EDSS score, younger age, a shorter inter-attack interval and spinal lesions. Compared to individuals with EOMS and LOMS, individuals with AOMS more often had either no or three and more relapses in the first two years. For individuals with LOMS, mean age was 53.8 years; key symptoms were motor dysfunctions, sensory disturbances and visual impairments. On average, 14 years after disease onset, 25.3% with RRMS switched to an SPMS. The key predictors at disease onset were: occurrence of spinal lesions and spinal gadolinium-enhancement. Compared to individuals with EOMS and AOMS, individuals with LOMS more often had no relapses in the first two years, and higher EDSS scores at disease onset and at follow-up. Conclusion: Among a large sample of MS sufferers, cases with early onset and late onset are observable. Individuals with early, adult and late onset MS each display distinct features which should be taken in consideration in their treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; age of onset; early onset; late onset; magnetic resonance imaging; predictors; EDSS score; relapsing-remitting MS; secondary progressive MS multiple sclerosis; age of onset; early onset; late onset; magnetic resonance imaging; predictors; EDSS score; relapsing-remitting MS; secondary progressive MS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mirmosayyeb, O.; Brand, S.; Barzegar, M.; Afshari-Safavi, A.; Nehzat, N.; Shaygannejad, V.; Sadeghi Bahmani, D. Clinical Characteristics and Disability Progression of Early- and Late-Onset Multiple Sclerosis Compared to Adult-Onset Multiple Sclerosis. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 1326. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051326

AMA Style

Mirmosayyeb O, Brand S, Barzegar M, Afshari-Safavi A, Nehzat N, Shaygannejad V, Sadeghi Bahmani D. Clinical Characteristics and Disability Progression of Early- and Late-Onset Multiple Sclerosis Compared to Adult-Onset Multiple Sclerosis. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(5):1326. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051326

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mirmosayyeb, Omid, Serge Brand, Mahdi Barzegar, Alireza Afshari-Safavi, Nasim Nehzat, Vahid Shaygannejad, and Dena Sadeghi Bahmani. 2020. "Clinical Characteristics and Disability Progression of Early- and Late-Onset Multiple Sclerosis Compared to Adult-Onset Multiple Sclerosis" Journal of Clinical Medicine 9, no. 5: 1326. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051326

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