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Open AccessArticle

Primary Retention of Molars and RANKL Signaling Alteration during Craniofacial Growth

1
INSERM, UMR-1138, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Université de Paris, Sorbonne Université, Physiopathologie Orale Moléculaire, F-75006 Paris, France
2
Odontology Center of District Federal Military Police, Brasília 70297-400, Brazil
3
Oral Histopathology Laboratory, Health Sciences Faculty, University of Brasília, Brasília 70910-900, Brazil
4
Service d’Odontologie-Stomatologie, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, AP-HP, F-75013 Paris, France
5
INSERM, UMR-1238, Equipe 1, Faculté de Médecine, Université de Nantes, F-44035 Nantes, France
6
Department of Basic Studies, Faculty of Odontology, University of Antioquia, Medellin A.A1226, Colombia
7
Department of Immunology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan
8
INSERM, LEA Sarcoma Research Unit, University of Sheffield, Department of Oncology and Human Metabolism, Medical School, Sheffield S10 2RX, UK
9
INSERM, UMR 1232, LabCT, CRCNA, Université de Nantes, Université d’Angers, Institut de Cancérologie de l’Ouest, site René Gauducheau, F-44805 Saint-Herblain, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Have equally contributed.
Have equally contributed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(4), 898; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9040898 (registering DOI)
Received: 25 January 2020 / Revised: 20 March 2020 / Accepted: 20 March 2020 / Published: 25 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Stomatology)
The primary retention of molars observed in clinic corresponds to a still-unexplained absence of molar eruption despite the presence of an eruption pathway, resembling the experimental transient inhibition of RANKL signaling in mice. The aim of the present study was to confront the hypothesis according to which the primary retention of molars is associated with transitory perturbations to RANKL signaling during growth as part of a wider craniofacial skeleton pattern. The experimental strategy was based on combining a clinical study and an animal study corresponding to the characterization of the craniofacial phenotypes of patients with primary retention of molars and analyses in mice of the consequences of transient inhibition of RANKL signaling on molar eruption and craniofacial growth. The clinical study validated the existence of a particular craniofacial phenotype in patients with primary retention of molars: a retromandibular skeletal class II typology with reduced mandibular dimensions which manifests itself at the dental level by a class II/2 with palatoversion of the upper incisors and anterior overbite. The animal study demonstrated that transient invalidation of RANKL signaling had an impact on the molar eruption process, the severity of which was dependent on the period of inhibition and was associated with a reduction in two craniofacial morphometric parameters: total skull length and craniofacial vault length. In conclusion, primary retention of molars may be proposed as part of the craniofacial skeleton phenotype associated with a transitory alteration in RANKL signaling during growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: primary retention of molars; RANKL; craniofacial; growth primary retention of molars; RANKL; craniofacial; growth
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gama, A.; Maman, L.; Vargas-Franco, J.W.; Omar, R.; Brounais-Le Royer, B.; Yagita, H.; Babajko, S.; Berdal, A.; Acevedo, A.C.; Heymann, D.; Lézot, F.; Castaneda, B. Primary Retention of Molars and RANKL Signaling Alteration during Craniofacial Growth. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 898.

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