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Open AccessArticle

Development and Validation of a Quick Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment-Based Machine-Learning Model for Mortality Prediction in Patients with Suspected Infection in the Emergency Department

1
Department of Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Chuncheon 24253, Korea
2
Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hwaseong-si 18450, Korea
3
Lung Research Institute of Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon-si 24253, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(3), 875; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9030875
Received: 29 January 2020 / Revised: 4 March 2020 / Accepted: 17 March 2020 / Published: 23 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Emergency Medicine)
The quick sepsis-related organ failure assessment (qSOFA) score has been introduced to predict the likelihood of organ dysfunction in patients with suspected infection. We hypothesized that machine-learning models using qSOFA variables for predicting three-day mortality would provide better accuracy than the qSOFA score in the emergency department (ED). Between January 2016 and December 2018, the medical records of patients aged over 18 years with suspected infection were retrospectively obtained from four EDs in Korea. Data from three hospitals (n = 19,353) were used as training-validation datasets and data from one (n = 4234) as the test dataset. Machine-learning algorithms including extreme gradient boosting, light gradient boosting machine, and random forest were used. We assessed the prediction ability of machine-learning models using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve, and DeLong’s test was used to compare AUROCs between the qSOFA scores and qSOFA-based machine-learning models. A total of 447,926 patients visited EDs during the study period. We analyzed 23,587 patients with suspected infection who were admitted to the EDs. The median age of the patients was 63 years (interquartile range: 43–78 years) and in-hospital mortality was 4.0% (n = 941). For predicting three-day mortality among patients with suspected infection in the ED, the AUROC of the qSOFA-based machine-learning model (0.86 [95% CI 0.85–0.87]) for three -day mortality was higher than that of the qSOFA scores (0.78 [95% CI 0.77–0.79], p < 0.001). For predicting three-day mortality in patients with suspected infection in the ED, the qSOFA-based machine-learning model was found to be superior to the conventional qSOFA scores. View Full-Text
Keywords: qSOFA; infection; sepsis; machine learning; emergency department qSOFA; infection; sepsis; machine learning; emergency department
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Kwon, Y.S.; Baek, M.S. Development and Validation of a Quick Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment-Based Machine-Learning Model for Mortality Prediction in Patients with Suspected Infection in the Emergency Department. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 875.

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