Background: This study aims to evaluate if children with temporal arachnoid cysts (AC) have cognitive symptoms and if neurosurgery improves these. Methods: A prospective case series study including consecutive pediatric patients with temporal AC. The children underwent neuroradiology, neuroopthalmologic evaluation, and a standard electroencephalography (EEG). Additionally, a neuropsychologist performed a standardized set of evaluations, with a one-year follow-up consisting of Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children version IV (WISC-IV), FAS (for verbal fluency), Boston Naming Test (BNT, for visual naming ability) and NEPSY-II (Developmental NEuroPSYchological Assessment) for verbal memory. Results: Fifteen children, 9 boys and 6 girls, were evaluated and 11 underwent surgery. The Full Scale IQ subscore (FSIQ) improved from M = 84.8 to M = 93.0 (p
= 0.005). The preoperative Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) was in the low average range (M = 86.7), improving to a level within the average range (M = 94.7, p
= 0.001). Preoperative Perceptual Speed Index (PSI) was in the below average range (M = 81.5), improving to a level within the average range (M = 92.5, p
= 0.004). Conclusion: ACs are a common finding in a pediatric neurosurgical setting. Our data suggest that some temporal AC have a negative effect on general cognitive ability and that this impairment can be improved by surgery. We suggest a standardized evaluation, including comprehensive and validated neuropsychological assessment tools, to thoroughly assess symptoms as well as the postoperative outcome.
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