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Open AccessArticle

Elevated Procalcitonin as a Risk Factor for Postoperative Delirium in the Elderly after Cardiac Surgery—A Prospective Observational Study

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska 213, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland
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J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(12), 3837; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9123837
Received: 28 October 2020 / Revised: 22 November 2020 / Accepted: 24 November 2020 / Published: 26 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Management of Perioperative Brain Health)
One of the most common complications after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) is delirium. The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the risk of developing postoperative delirium in a group of elderly patients using a multivariate assessment of preoperative and intraoperative risk factors. A total of 149 elderly patients were included. Thirty patients (20%) developed post-operative delirium. Preoperative procalcitonin (PCT) above the reference range (>0.05 ng/mL) was recorded more often in patients who postoperatively developed delirium than in the non-delirium group (50% vs. 27%, p = 0.019). After surgery, PCT was significantly higher in the delirium than the non-delirium group: ICU admission after surgery: 0.08 ng/mL vs. 0.05 ng/mL p = 0.011), and for consecutive days (day 1: 0.59 ng/mL vs. 0.25 ng/mL, p = 0.003; day 2: 1.21 ng/mL vs. 0.36 ng/mL, p = 0.006; day 3: 0.76 ng/mL vs. 0.34 ng/mL, p = 0.001). Patients with delirium were older (74 vs. 69 years, p = 0.038), more often had impaired daily functioning (47% vs. 28%, p = 0.041), depressive symptoms (40% vs. 17%, p = 0.005), and anemia (43% vs. 19%, p = 0.006). In a multivariable logistic regression model, preoperative procalcitonin (odds ratio (OR) = 3.05), depressive symptoms (OR = 5.02), age (OR = 1.14), impaired daily functioning (OR = 0.76) along with CPB time (OR = 1.04) were significant predictors of postoperative delirium. View Full-Text
Keywords: delirium; procalcitonin; elderly; functional decline; depression; cardiac surgery delirium; procalcitonin; elderly; functional decline; depression; cardiac surgery
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kupiec, A.; Adamik, B.; Kozera, N.; Gozdzik, W. Elevated Procalcitonin as a Risk Factor for Postoperative Delirium in the Elderly after Cardiac Surgery—A Prospective Observational Study. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 3837. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9123837

AMA Style

Kupiec A, Adamik B, Kozera N, Gozdzik W. Elevated Procalcitonin as a Risk Factor for Postoperative Delirium in the Elderly after Cardiac Surgery—A Prospective Observational Study. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(12):3837. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9123837

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kupiec, Anna; Adamik, Barbara; Kozera, Natalia; Gozdzik, Waldemar. 2020. "Elevated Procalcitonin as a Risk Factor for Postoperative Delirium in the Elderly after Cardiac Surgery—A Prospective Observational Study" J. Clin. Med. 9, no. 12: 3837. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9123837

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