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Article

The Role of Positive Psychological Factors in the Association between Pain Intensity and Pain Interference in Individuals with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study

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Departamento de Fisioterapia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga, Spain
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Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), 29071 Malaga, Spain
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Servicio Andaluz de Salud, Distrito de Atención Primaria Costa del Sol, U.G.C. Las Albarizas, 29600 Marbella, Málaga, Spain
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Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga, Spain
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Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
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Servicio Andaluz de Salud, Distrito de Atención Primaria Costa del Sol, U.G.C. Las Lagunas, 29650 Mijas, Málaga, Spain
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Servicio Andaluz de Salud, Distrito de Atención Primaria Costa del Sol, U.G.C. La Carihuela, 29620 Torremolinos, Málaga, Spain
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Servicio Andaluz de Salud, Distrito de Atención Primaria Costa del Sol, U.G.C. San Pedro de Alcántara, 29670 Marbella, Málaga, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(10), 3252; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103252
Received: 24 August 2020 / Revised: 1 October 2020 / Accepted: 8 October 2020 / Published: 12 October 2020
This study aimed to test the cross-sectional mediating and moderating role that positive psychological factors play in the association between pain intensity and pain interference in individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain. A descriptive cross-sectional study using mediation analyses was conducted, including 186 individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain. We conducted cross-sectional mediation and moderation analyses to determine whether the positive psychological factors mediated or moderated the association between pain intensity and pain interference. Pain acceptance, pain self-efficacy, and optimism were all significantly and weakly related to pain interference when controlling for pain intensity. Pain self-efficacy and pain acceptance partially mediated the association between pain intensity and pain interference. On the other hand, the multiple mediation model did not show significant effects. The three positive psychological factors were not found to significantly moderate the association between pain intensity and pain interference. The findings suggest that in chronic musculoskeletal pain patients, the treatments may focus on [i] what they are capable of doing to manage the pain (i.e., pain self-efficacy) and [ii] being better able to accept the pain as pain waxes and wanes might be also particularly helpful. However, these results must be tested in longitudinal studies before drawing any causal conclusion. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic pain; cognition; cross-sectional studies; musculoskeletal pain; optimism; pain; self-efficacy chronic pain; cognition; cross-sectional studies; musculoskeletal pain; optimism; pain; self-efficacy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martinez-Calderon, J.; Flores-Cortes, M.; Clavero-Cano, S.; Morales-Asencio, J.M.; Jensen, M.P.; Rondon-Ramos, A.; Diaz-Cerrillo, J.L.; Ariza-Hurtado, G.R.; Luque-Suarez, A. The Role of Positive Psychological Factors in the Association between Pain Intensity and Pain Interference in Individuals with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 3252. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103252

AMA Style

Martinez-Calderon J, Flores-Cortes M, Clavero-Cano S, Morales-Asencio JM, Jensen MP, Rondon-Ramos A, Diaz-Cerrillo JL, Ariza-Hurtado GR, Luque-Suarez A. The Role of Positive Psychological Factors in the Association between Pain Intensity and Pain Interference in Individuals with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(10):3252. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103252

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martinez-Calderon, Javier, Mar Flores-Cortes, Susana Clavero-Cano, Jose M. Morales-Asencio, Mark P. Jensen, Antonio Rondon-Ramos, Juan L. Diaz-Cerrillo, Gina R. Ariza-Hurtado, and Alejandro Luque-Suarez. 2020. "The Role of Positive Psychological Factors in the Association between Pain Intensity and Pain Interference in Individuals with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study" Journal of Clinical Medicine 9, no. 10: 3252. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103252

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