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Association of Hypertension with All-Cause Mortality among Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19

Internal Medicine Department, University Hospital of Sagunto, Universidad Cardenal Herrera-CEU, CEU Universities, 46520 Sagunto, Spain
Internal Medicine Department, Regional University Hospital of Málaga, 29010 Málaga, Spain
Internal Medicine Department, Henares Hospital, 28822 Coslada (Madrid), Spain
Internal Medicine Department, Torrevieja University Hospital, 03186 Torrevieja (Alicante), Spain
Internal Medicine Department, La Fe University Hospital, 46026 Valencia, Spain
Internal Medicine Department, San Pedro Hospital, 26006 Logroño (La Rioja), Spain
Internal Medicine Department, Ntra Sra Candelaria University Hospital, 38010 Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
Internal Medicine Department, Hypertension and Cardiometabolic Risk Unit, San Juan de Alicante University Hospital, Miguel Hernández University, 03550 San Juan de Alicante (Alicante), Spain
Internal Medicine Department, San Agustin University Hospital, 33410 Avilés (Asturias), Spain
Internal Medicine Department, Mataró Hospital, 08304 Mataró, Barcelona, Spain
Internal Medicine Department, Son Llàtzer University Hospital, 07198 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
Internal Medicine Department, Juan Ramón Jiménez Hospital, 21005 Huelva, Spain
Internal Medicine Department, Virgen de la Salud Hospital, 45004 Toledo, Spain
Internal Medicine Department, Lipids and Atherosclerosis Unit, Maimonides Biomedical Research Institute of Cordoba (IMIBIC), Reina Sofia University Hospital, University of Cordoba, Spain, CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 14004 Cordoba, Spain
Internal Medicine Department, Infanta Margarita Hospital, 14940 Cabra (Córdoba), Spain
Internal Medicine Department, Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, 18014 Granada, Spain
Internal Medicine Department, San Juan de la Cruz Hospital, 23400 Úbeda (Jaén), Spain
Internal Medicine Department, Costa del Sol Hospital, 29603 Marbella (Málaga), Spain
Internal Medicine Department, León University Hospital Complex, 24008 León, Spain
Internal Medicine Department, Infanta Cristina University Hospital, 28981 Parla (Madrid), Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(10), 3136;
Received: 26 August 2020 / Revised: 17 September 2020 / Accepted: 21 September 2020 / Published: 28 September 2020
It is unclear to which extent the higher mortality associated with hypertension in the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is due to its increased prevalence among older patients or to specific mechanisms. Cross-sectional, observational, retrospective multicenter study, analyzing 12226 patients who required hospital admission in 150 Spanish centers included in the nationwide SEMI-COVID-19 Network. We compared the clinical characteristics of survivors versus non-survivors. The mean age of the study population was 67.5 ± 16.1 years, 42.6% were women. Overall, 2630 (21.5%) subjects died. The most common comorbidity was hypertension (50.9%) followed by diabetes (19.1%), and atrial fibrillation (11.2%). Multivariate analysis showed that after adjusting for gender (males, OR: 1.5, p = 0.0001), age tertiles (second and third tertiles, OR: 2.0 and 4.7, p = 0.0001), and Charlson Comorbidity Index scores (second and third tertiles, OR: 4.7 and 8.1, p = 0.0001), hypertension was significantly predictive of all-cause mortality when this comorbidity was treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) (OR: 1.6, p = 0.002) or other than renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockers (OR: 1.3, p = 0.001) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) (OR: 1.2, p = 0.035). The preexisting condition of hypertension had an independent prognostic value for all-cause mortality in patients with COVID-19 who required hospitalization. ARBs showed a lower risk of lethality in hypertensive patients than other antihypertensive drugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypertension; COVID-19; angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs); angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs); all-cause mortality hypertension; COVID-19; angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs); angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs); all-cause mortality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rodilla, E.; Saura, A.; Jiménez, I.; Mendizábal, A.; Pineda-Cantero, A.; Lorenzo-Hernández, E.; Fidalgo-Montero, M.d.P.; López-Cuervo, J.F.; Gil-Sánchez, R.; Rabadán-Pejenaute, E.; Abella-Vázquez, L.; Giner-Galvañ, V.; Solís-Marquínez, M.N.; Boixeda, R.; Peña-Fernández, A.d.l.; Carrasco-Sánchez, F.J.; González-Moraleja, J.; Torres-Peña, J.D.; Guisado-Espartero, M.E.; Escobar-Sevilla, J.; Guzmán-García, M.; Martín-Escalante, M.D.; Martínez-González, Á.L.; Casas-Rojo, J.M.; Gómez-Huelgas, R. Association of Hypertension with All-Cause Mortality among Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 3136.

AMA Style

Rodilla E, Saura A, Jiménez I, Mendizábal A, Pineda-Cantero A, Lorenzo-Hernández E, Fidalgo-Montero MdP, López-Cuervo JF, Gil-Sánchez R, Rabadán-Pejenaute E, Abella-Vázquez L, Giner-Galvañ V, Solís-Marquínez MN, Boixeda R, Peña-Fernández Adl, Carrasco-Sánchez FJ, González-Moraleja J, Torres-Peña JD, Guisado-Espartero ME, Escobar-Sevilla J, Guzmán-García M, Martín-Escalante MD, Martínez-González ÁL, Casas-Rojo JM, Gómez-Huelgas R. Association of Hypertension with All-Cause Mortality among Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(10):3136.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rodilla, Enrique; Saura, Alberto; Jiménez, Iratxe; Mendizábal, Andrea; Pineda-Cantero, Araceli; Lorenzo-Hernández, Elizabeth; Fidalgo-Montero, Maria d.P.; López-Cuervo, Joaquín F.; Gil-Sánchez, Ricardo; Rabadán-Pejenaute, Elisa; Abella-Vázquez, Lucy; Giner-Galvañ, Vicente; Solís-Marquínez, Marta N.; Boixeda, Ramon; Peña-Fernández, Andrés d.l.; Carrasco-Sánchez, Francisco J.; González-Moraleja, Julio; Torres-Peña, José D.; Guisado-Espartero, María E.; Escobar-Sevilla, Joaquín; Guzmán-García, Marcos; Martín-Escalante, María D.; Martínez-González, Ángel L.; Casas-Rojo, José M.; Gómez-Huelgas, Ricardo. 2020. "Association of Hypertension with All-Cause Mortality among Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19" J. Clin. Med. 9, no. 10: 3136.

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