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Association of Hypertension with All-Cause Mortality among Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19

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Internal Medicine Department, University Hospital of Sagunto, Universidad Cardenal Herrera-CEU, CEU Universities, 46520 Sagunto, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Regional University Hospital of Málaga, 29010 Málaga, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Henares Hospital, 28822 Coslada (Madrid), Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Torrevieja University Hospital, 03186 Torrevieja (Alicante), Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, La Fe University Hospital, 46026 Valencia, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, San Pedro Hospital, 26006 Logroño (La Rioja), Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Ntra Sra Candelaria University Hospital, 38010 Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Hypertension and Cardiometabolic Risk Unit, San Juan de Alicante University Hospital, Miguel Hernández University, 03550 San Juan de Alicante (Alicante), Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, San Agustin University Hospital, 33410 Avilés (Asturias), Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Mataró Hospital, 08304 Mataró, Barcelona, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Son Llàtzer University Hospital, 07198 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Juan Ramón Jiménez Hospital, 21005 Huelva, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Virgen de la Salud Hospital, 45004 Toledo, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Lipids and Atherosclerosis Unit, Maimonides Biomedical Research Institute of Cordoba (IMIBIC), Reina Sofia University Hospital, University of Cordoba, Spain, CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 14004 Cordoba, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Infanta Margarita Hospital, 14940 Cabra (Córdoba), Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, 18014 Granada, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, San Juan de la Cruz Hospital, 23400 Úbeda (Jaén), Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Costa del Sol Hospital, 29603 Marbella (Málaga), Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, León University Hospital Complex, 24008 León, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Infanta Cristina University Hospital, 28981 Parla (Madrid), Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(10), 3136; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103136
Received: 26 August 2020 / Revised: 17 September 2020 / Accepted: 21 September 2020 / Published: 28 September 2020
It is unclear to which extent the higher mortality associated with hypertension in the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is due to its increased prevalence among older patients or to specific mechanisms. Cross-sectional, observational, retrospective multicenter study, analyzing 12226 patients who required hospital admission in 150 Spanish centers included in the nationwide SEMI-COVID-19 Network. We compared the clinical characteristics of survivors versus non-survivors. The mean age of the study population was 67.5 ± 16.1 years, 42.6% were women. Overall, 2630 (21.5%) subjects died. The most common comorbidity was hypertension (50.9%) followed by diabetes (19.1%), and atrial fibrillation (11.2%). Multivariate analysis showed that after adjusting for gender (males, OR: 1.5, p = 0.0001), age tertiles (second and third tertiles, OR: 2.0 and 4.7, p = 0.0001), and Charlson Comorbidity Index scores (second and third tertiles, OR: 4.7 and 8.1, p = 0.0001), hypertension was significantly predictive of all-cause mortality when this comorbidity was treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) (OR: 1.6, p = 0.002) or other than renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockers (OR: 1.3, p = 0.001) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) (OR: 1.2, p = 0.035). The preexisting condition of hypertension had an independent prognostic value for all-cause mortality in patients with COVID-19 who required hospitalization. ARBs showed a lower risk of lethality in hypertensive patients than other antihypertensive drugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypertension; COVID-19; angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs); angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs); all-cause mortality hypertension; COVID-19; angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs); angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs); all-cause mortality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rodilla, E.; Saura, A.; Jiménez, I.; Mendizábal, A.; Pineda-Cantero, A.; Lorenzo-Hernández, E.; Fidalgo-Montero, M.d.P.; López-Cuervo, J.F.; Gil-Sánchez, R.; Rabadán-Pejenaute, E.; Abella-Vázquez, L.; Giner-Galvañ, V.; Solís-Marquínez, M.N.; Boixeda, R.; Peña-Fernández, A.d.l.; Carrasco-Sánchez, F.J.; González-Moraleja, J.; Torres-Peña, J.D.; Guisado-Espartero, M.E.; Escobar-Sevilla, J.; Guzmán-García, M.; Martín-Escalante, M.D.; Martínez-González, Á.L.; Casas-Rojo, J.M.; Gómez-Huelgas, R. Association of Hypertension with All-Cause Mortality among Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 3136. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103136

AMA Style

Rodilla E, Saura A, Jiménez I, Mendizábal A, Pineda-Cantero A, Lorenzo-Hernández E, Fidalgo-Montero MdP, López-Cuervo JF, Gil-Sánchez R, Rabadán-Pejenaute E, Abella-Vázquez L, Giner-Galvañ V, Solís-Marquínez MN, Boixeda R, Peña-Fernández Adl, Carrasco-Sánchez FJ, González-Moraleja J, Torres-Peña JD, Guisado-Espartero ME, Escobar-Sevilla J, Guzmán-García M, Martín-Escalante MD, Martínez-González ÁL, Casas-Rojo JM, Gómez-Huelgas R. Association of Hypertension with All-Cause Mortality among Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(10):3136. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103136

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rodilla, Enrique; Saura, Alberto; Jiménez, Iratxe; Mendizábal, Andrea; Pineda-Cantero, Araceli; Lorenzo-Hernández, Elizabeth; Fidalgo-Montero, Maria d.P.; López-Cuervo, Joaquín F.; Gil-Sánchez, Ricardo; Rabadán-Pejenaute, Elisa; Abella-Vázquez, Lucy; Giner-Galvañ, Vicente; Solís-Marquínez, Marta N.; Boixeda, Ramon; Peña-Fernández, Andrés d.l.; Carrasco-Sánchez, Francisco J.; González-Moraleja, Julio; Torres-Peña, José D.; Guisado-Espartero, María E.; Escobar-Sevilla, Joaquín; Guzmán-García, Marcos; Martín-Escalante, María D.; Martínez-González, Ángel L.; Casas-Rojo, José M.; Gómez-Huelgas, Ricardo. 2020. "Association of Hypertension with All-Cause Mortality among Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19" J. Clin. Med. 9, no. 10: 3136. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103136

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