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Trends, Patient and Prescriber Characteristics in Gabapentinoid Use in a Sample of United States Ambulatory Care Visits from 2003 to 2016

1
Department of Pharmacy, Practice and Science, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
2
University of Arizona Arthritis Center, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
3
Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
4
Department of Anesthesiology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
5
Department of Pharmacotherapy, College of Pharmacy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112,USA
6
Department of Pharmaceutical Outcomes and Policy, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
7
Center for Drug Evaluation and Safety, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010083
Received: 26 November 2019 / Revised: 13 December 2019 / Accepted: 27 December 2019 / Published: 29 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacology)
Increasing gabapentinoid use has raised concerns of misuse and abuse in the United States (US). Little is known about the characteristics of gabapentinoid use in general clinical practice over time. This cross-sectional study used data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. We examined the trends of patient and prescriber characteristics and the diagnoses associated with US ambulatory care visits involving gabapentinoids for adult visits from 2003 to 2016. Using multivariable logistic regression, we estimated the adjusted proportion of gabapentinoid-involved visits among all visits and tested for trend significance. Among the weighted estimate of 260.1 million gabapentinoid-involved visits (aged 18–64 years: 61.8%; female: 61.9%; white: 85.5%), the adjusted annual proportion of gabapentinoid-involved visits nearly quadrupled from 2003 to 2016 (9.1 to 34.9 per 1000 visits; Ptrend < 0.0001), driven mainly by gabapentin. Nearly half had concurrent use with opioids (32.9%) or benzodiazepines (15.3%). Primary care physicians (45.8%), neurologists (8.2%), surgeons (6.2%), and psychiatrists (4.8%) prescribed two-thirds of the gabapentinoids. Most (96.6%) of the gabapentinoid visits did not have an approved indication for gabapentinoids among the first three diagnoses. Among US ambulatory care visits from 2003 to 2016, gabapentinoid use increased substantially, commonly prescribed by primary care physicians. View Full-Text
Keywords: gabapentinoid; gabapentin; pregabalin; ambulatory care visits; patient and prescriber characteristics; trend; approved indication; off-label use gabapentinoid; gabapentin; pregabalin; ambulatory care visits; patient and prescriber characteristics; trend; approved indication; off-label use
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, L.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Kwoh, C.K.; Tighe, P.J.; Malone, D.C.; Slack, M.; Wilson, D.L.; Brown, J.D.; Lo-Ciganic, W.-H. Trends, Patient and Prescriber Characteristics in Gabapentinoid Use in a Sample of United States Ambulatory Care Visits from 2003 to 2016. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 83. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010083

AMA Style

Zhou L, Bhattacharjee S, Kwoh CK, Tighe PJ, Malone DC, Slack M, Wilson DL, Brown JD, Lo-Ciganic W-H. Trends, Patient and Prescriber Characteristics in Gabapentinoid Use in a Sample of United States Ambulatory Care Visits from 2003 to 2016. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(1):83. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010083

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhou, Lili; Bhattacharjee, Sandipan; Kwoh, C. K.; Tighe, Patrick J.; Malone, Daniel C.; Slack, Marion; Wilson, Debbie L.; Brown, Joshua D.; Lo-Ciganic, Wei-Hsuan. 2020. "Trends, Patient and Prescriber Characteristics in Gabapentinoid Use in a Sample of United States Ambulatory Care Visits from 2003 to 2016" J. Clin. Med. 9, no. 1: 83. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010083

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