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Open AccessArticle

Walking Speed: Japanese Data in Chronic Liver Diseases

1
Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Disease, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501, Japan
2
Center for Clinical Research and Education, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010166
Received: 30 November 2019 / Revised: 20 December 2019 / Accepted: 3 January 2020 / Published: 7 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine)
We aim to clarify the impact of walking speed (WS) and analyze factors linked to WS decline in patients with chronic liver diseases (CLDs, 165 males and 191 females, 137 liver cirrhosis patients). The WS decline is defined as <0.8 m/second (m/s), referring to the guidelines. The median (range) WS was 1.3 m/s (0.2–2.02 m/s). There were 17 patients with WS < 0.8 m/s (4.8%). The WS value was significantly correlated with the handgrip strength value both in males (r2 = 0.252, p < 0.0001) and females (r2 = 0.256, p < 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis of factors associated with WS decline, only the extracellular water (ECW) to total body water (TBW) ratio using bioimpedance analysis was an independent predictor (p = 0.0398). Extracellular fluid excess was categorized as follows: normal condition (ECW to TBW ratio < 0.390), mild overhydrated condition (ECW to TBW ratio 0.390–0.399), and moderate to severe overhydrated condition (ECW to TBW ratio ≥ 0.400). The WS value was well stratified according to the ECW to TBW ratio (normal vs. mild, p = 0.0001; mild vs. moderate to severe, p < 0.0001; normal vs. moderate to severe, p < 0.0001; overall p-value < 0.0001). In conclusion, the ECW to TBW ratio can be closely linked to WS decline in CLD patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: walking speed; handgrip strength; chronic liver diseases; ECW to TBW ratio; sarcopenia walking speed; handgrip strength; chronic liver diseases; ECW to TBW ratio; sarcopenia
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Nishikawa, H.; Enomoto, H.; Yoh, K.; Iwata, Y.; Sakai, Y.; Kishino, K.; Ikeda, N.; Takashima, T.; Aizawa, N.; Takata, R.; Hasegawa, K.; Ishii, N.; Yuri, Y.; Nishimura, T.; Iijima, H.; Nishiguchi, S. Walking Speed: Japanese Data in Chronic Liver Diseases. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 166.

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