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Article

Longitudinal Substance Use and Biopsychosocial Outcomes Following Therapeutic Community Treatment for Substance Dependence

1
School of Psychology, Deakin University, Geelong 3220, Australia
2
Deakin University Centre for Drug Use, Addictive and Antisocial Behaviour Research (CEDAAR), Burwood 3125, Australia
3
Odyssey House Victoria, Melbourne 3121, Australia
4
The Australian Centre for Behavioural Research in Diabetes, Diabetes Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria 3051, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010118
Received: 27 November 2019 / Revised: 20 December 2019 / Accepted: 23 December 2019 / Published: 1 January 2020
The Therapeutic Community (TC) model is considered an effective treatment for substance dependence, particularly for individuals with complex presentations. While a popular approach for this cohort across a number of countries, few studies have focussed on biopsychosocial and longer-term outcomes for this treatment modality. This study reports on substance use, dependence, and biopsychosocial outcomes up to 9 months post-exit from two TC sites. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study (n = 166) with two follow-up time points. Measures included substance use, dependence, subjective well-being, social functioning, and mental and physical health. Generalized Linear Models were employed to assess change over time. Results: At 9 months, 68% of participants reported complete 90-day drug abstinence. Alcohol frequency and quantity were reduced by over 50% at 9 months, with 32% of the sample recording 90-day abstinence at 9 months. Both alcohol and drug dependence scores were reduced by over 60%, and small to medium effect sizes were found for a range of psychosocial outcomes at 9 months follow-up, including a doubling of wellbeing scores, and a halving of psychiatric severity scores. Residents who remained in the TC for at least 9 months reported substantially better outcomes. Conclusions: With notably high study follow-up rates (over 90% at 9 months post-exit), these data demonstrate the value of the TC model in achieving substantial and sustained improvements in substance use and psychosocial outcomes for a cohort with severe substance dependence and complex presentations. Implications for optimal length of stay are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Therapeutic Community; substance use disorder; residential rehabilitation; outcomes; drug and alcohol Therapeutic Community; substance use disorder; residential rehabilitation; outcomes; drug and alcohol
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MDPI and ACS Style

Staiger, P.K.; Liknaitzky, P.; Lake, A.J.; Gruenert, S. Longitudinal Substance Use and Biopsychosocial Outcomes Following Therapeutic Community Treatment for Substance Dependence. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 118. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010118

AMA Style

Staiger PK, Liknaitzky P, Lake AJ, Gruenert S. Longitudinal Substance Use and Biopsychosocial Outcomes Following Therapeutic Community Treatment for Substance Dependence. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(1):118. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010118

Chicago/Turabian Style

Staiger, Petra K., Paul Liknaitzky, Amelia J. Lake, and Stefan Gruenert. 2020. "Longitudinal Substance Use and Biopsychosocial Outcomes Following Therapeutic Community Treatment for Substance Dependence" Journal of Clinical Medicine 9, no. 1: 118. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010118

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