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Review

Dry Eye Disease: A Review of Epidemiology in Taiwan, and its Clinical Treatment and Merits

by 1,†, 2,3,†, 4,5, 2,3, 6, 3,7, 8,9 and 6,10,11,12,*
1
School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
2
Department of Ophthalmology, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City 23561, Taiwan
3
Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
4
School of Health Care Administration, College of Management, , Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
5
Health and Clinical Data Research Center, College of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
6
Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials & Tissue Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
7
Department of Ophthalmology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 11217, Taiwan
8
Centre for Eye Research Australia, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, East Melbourne, VIC 3002, Australia
9
Ophthalmology, Department of Surgery, University of Melbourne, East Melbourne, VIC 3002, Australia
10
Institute of International PhD Program in Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
11
Research Center of Biomedical Device, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
12
International PhD Program in Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(8), 1227; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8081227
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 6 August 2019 / Accepted: 8 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dry Eye Syndrome: New Insights on Epidemiology and Management)
Dry eye disease (DED) has become common on a global scale in recent years. There is a wide prevalence of DED in different countries based on various ethnicities and environment. DED is a multifactorial ocular disorder. In addition to advanced age and gender, such factors as living at high altitude, smoking, pterygium, prolonged use of consumer electronics or overingesting of caffeine or multivitamins are considered to be the major risk factors of DED. We report the DED epidemiology in Taiwan firstly in this article. According to the pathophysiological factors and changes inthe composition of the tear film in DED, it can be categorized into several subtypes, including lipid anomaly dry eye, aqueous tear deficiency, allergic and toxic dry eye among others. Each subtype has its own cause and disease management; therefore, it is important for ophthalmologists to identify the type through literature review and investigation. The management of DED, relies not only on traditional medications such as artificial tears, gels and ointments, but also newer treatment options such as acupuncture, SYL1001, and nanomedicine therapy. We also conducted a comprehensive literature review including common subtypes and treatment of DED. Clearly, more clinical trials are needed to assess the efficacy and safety of the various treatments and common subtypes of DED. View Full-Text
Keywords: dry eye disease (DED); prevalence; risk factor; subtype; DED treatment; nanomedicine dry eye disease (DED); prevalence; risk factor; subtype; DED treatment; nanomedicine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kuo, Y.-K.; Lin, I.-C.; Chien, L.-N.; Lin, T.-Y.; How, Y.-T.; Chen, K.-H.; Dusting, G.J.; Tseng, C.-L. Dry Eye Disease: A Review of Epidemiology in Taiwan, and its Clinical Treatment and Merits. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 1227. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8081227

AMA Style

Kuo Y-K, Lin I-C, Chien L-N, Lin T-Y, How Y-T, Chen K-H, Dusting GJ, Tseng C-L. Dry Eye Disease: A Review of Epidemiology in Taiwan, and its Clinical Treatment and Merits. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019; 8(8):1227. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8081227

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kuo, Yu-Kai, I-Chan Lin, Li-Nien Chien, Tzu-Yu Lin, Ying-Ting How, Ko-Hua Chen, Gregory J. Dusting, and Ching-Li Tseng. 2019. "Dry Eye Disease: A Review of Epidemiology in Taiwan, and its Clinical Treatment and Merits" Journal of Clinical Medicine 8, no. 8: 1227. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8081227

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