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HDL and LDL: Potential New Players in Breast Cancer Development

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Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques (IIB) Sant Pau, Sant Quintí 77, 08041 Barcelona, Spain
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CIBER de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM), Monforte de Lemos 3-5, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1736, USA
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Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Av. de Can Domènech 737, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain
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CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Monforte de Lemos 3-5, 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(6), 853; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8060853
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer and primary cause of cancer-related mortality in women. The identification of risk factors can improve prevention of cancer, and obesity and hypercholesterolemia represent potentially modifiable breast cancer risk factors. In the present work, we review the progress to date in research on the potential role of the main cholesterol transporters, low-density and high-density lipoproteins (LDL and HDL), on breast cancer development. Although some studies have failed to find associations between lipoproteins and breast cancer, some large clinical studies have demonstrated a direct association between LDL cholesterol levels and breast cancer risk and an inverse association between HDL cholesterol and breast cancer risk. Research in breast cancer cells and experimental mouse models of breast cancer have demonstrated an important role for cholesterol and its transporters in breast cancer development. Instead of cholesterol, the cholesterol metabolite 27-hydroxycholesterol induces the proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells and facilitates metastasis. Oxidative modification of the lipoproteins and HDL glycation activate different inflammation-related pathways, thereby enhancing cell proliferation and migration and inhibiting apoptosis. Cholesterol-lowering drugs and apolipoprotein A-I mimetics have emerged as potential therapeutic agents to prevent the deleterious effects of high cholesterol in breast cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: Breast cancer; cholesterol; 27-hydroxycholesterol; HDL; LDL; cholesterol-lowering therapies Breast cancer; cholesterol; 27-hydroxycholesterol; HDL; LDL; cholesterol-lowering therapies
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Cedó, L.; Reddy, S.T.; Mato, E.; Blanco-Vaca, F.; Escolà-Gil, J.C. HDL and LDL: Potential New Players in Breast Cancer Development. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 853.

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