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High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) Reflects Disease Progression in Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF): Relationship with Lung Pathology
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Exhalative Breath Markers Do Not Offer for Diagnosis of Interstitial Lung Diseases: Data from the European IPF Registry (eurIPFreg) and Biobank

1
European IPF Registry & Biobank (eurIPFreg/bank), 35394 Giessen, Germany
2
Universities of Giessen and Marburg Lung Center (UGMLC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), 35394 Giessen, Germany
3
Agaplesion Lung Clinic, 35753 Greifenstein, Germany
4
Cardio-Pulmonary Institute (CPI), EXC 2026, Project ID: 390649896, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, 35394 Giessen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(5), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8050643
Received: 5 April 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 4 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The New Frontier in Pulmonary Fibrosis)
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Abstract

Background: New biomarkers are urgently needed to facilitate diagnosis in Interstitial Lung Diseases (ILD), thus reducing the need for invasive procedures, and to enable tailoring and monitoring of medical treatment. Methods: In this study we investigated if patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF; n = 21), non-IPF ILDs (n = 57) and other lung diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) n = 24, lung cancer (LC) n = 16) as well as healthy subjects (n = 20) show relevant differences in exhaled NO (FeNO; Niox MINO), or in eicosanoid (PGE2, 8-isoprostane; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)) levels as measured in exhaled breath condensates (EBC) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF). Results: There was no significant difference in FeNO values between IPF, non-IPF ILDs and healthy subjects, although some individual patients showed highly elevated FeNO. On the basis of the FeNO signal, it was neither possible to differentiate between the kind of disease nor to detect exacerbations. In addition, there was no correlation between FeNO values and lung function. The investigation of the eicosanoids in EBCs was challenging (PGE2) or unreliable (8-isoprostane), but worked out well in BALF. A significant increase of free 8-isoprostane was observed in BALF, but not in EBCs, of patients with IPF, hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) and sarcoidosis, possibly indicating severity of oxidative stress. Conclusions: FeNO-measurements are not of diagnostic benefit in different ILDs including IPF. The same holds true for PGE2 and 8-isoprostane in EBC by ELISA. View Full-Text
Keywords: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF); exhalative breath markers; European Registry for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (eurIPFreg); interstitial lung diseases (ILD) idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF); exhalative breath markers; European Registry for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (eurIPFreg); interstitial lung diseases (ILD)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Krauss, E.; Froehler, M.; Degen, M.; Mahavadi, P.; Dartsch, R.C.; Korfei, M.; Ruppert, C.; Seeger, W.; Guenther, A. Exhalative Breath Markers Do Not Offer for Diagnosis of Interstitial Lung Diseases: Data from the European IPF Registry (eurIPFreg) and Biobank. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 643.

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