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Brain Network Organization Correlates with Autistic Features in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders and in Their Fathers: Preliminary Data from a DWI Analysis

Cranio-Facial Characteristics in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Department Promozione della Salute, Materno-Infantile, di Medicina Interna e Specialistica di Eccellenza “G. D’Alessandro”-PROMISE-University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy
Childhood Psychiatric Service for Neurodevelopmentals Disorders, Centre Hospitalier du Chinonais, 37500 Saint-Benoît-la-Forêt, France
UMR 1253, iBrain, Université de Tours, Inserm, 37000 Tours, France
Department of Biomedicine, Neuroscience and Advanced Diagnostics-BIND-University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy
Department of Psychological Sciences, Pedagogical and Education, University of Palermo, 90128 Palermo, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(5), 641;
Received: 15 March 2019 / Revised: 1 May 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Autism Spectrum Disorders)
Background: Cranio-facial anomalies frequently occur in neurodevelopmental disorders because both face and brain are derived from neuroectoderm. The identification of differences in the facial phenotype of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may reflect alterations in embryologic brain development in children with ASD. Methods: we evaluated 33 caucasian children with ASD using a 2D computerized photogrammetry. Anthropometric euclidean measurements and landmarks located on the soft tissue of the face and head, were based on five cranio-facial indexes. Relationships between anthropometric z-scores and participant characteristics (i.e., age, Global IQ, severity of autistic symptoms measured using the CARS checklist) were assessed. Results: Cephalic index z-score differed significantly from 0 in our ASD group (p = 0.019). Moreover, a significant negative correlation was found between Facial Index z-score and CARS score (p = 0.003); conversely, a positive correlation was found between Interchantal Index z-score and CARS score (p = 0.028). Conclusion: our measurements shows a dolichocephalic head shape which is not correlated with autism severity. Importantly, two craniofacial markers were significantly correlated with autism severity: increased orbital hyperthelorism and decrease of height of the facial midline. These data support previous findings of craniofacial anomalies in autism spectrum disorder suggesting an “ASD facial phenotype” that could be used to improve ASD diagnoses. View Full-Text
Keywords: autism spectrum disorders; morphology; neurodevelopment autism spectrum disorders; morphology; neurodevelopment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tripi, G.; Roux, S.; Matranga, D.; Maniscalco, L.; Glorioso, P.; Bonnet-Brilhault, F.; Roccella, M. Cranio-Facial Characteristics in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 641.

AMA Style

Tripi G, Roux S, Matranga D, Maniscalco L, Glorioso P, Bonnet-Brilhault F, Roccella M. Cranio-Facial Characteristics in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019; 8(5):641.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tripi, Gabriele, Sylvie Roux, Domenica Matranga, Laura Maniscalco, Pasqualino Glorioso, Frédérique Bonnet-Brilhault, and Michele Roccella. 2019. "Cranio-Facial Characteristics in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)" Journal of Clinical Medicine 8, no. 5: 641.

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