Next Article in Journal
Can the Macrogeometry of Dental Implants Influence Guided Bone Regeneration in Buccal Bone Defects? Histomorphometric and Biomechanical Analysis in Beagle Dogs
Next Article in Special Issue
Mineralocorticoid Receptor May Regulate Glucose Homeostasis through the Induction of Interleukin-6 and Glucagon-Like peptide-1 in Pancreatic Islets
Previous Article in Journal
Patient Eligibility for Standardized Treatment of the Edentulous Mandible: A Retrospective CBCT-Based Assessment of Mandibular Morphology
Previous Article in Special Issue
GLP-1 Limits Adipocyte Inflammation and Its Low Circulating Pre-Operative Concentrations Predict Worse Type 2 Diabetes Remission after Bariatric Surgery in Obese Patients
Open AccessArticle

Extracellular Vesicle Encapsulated MicroRNAs in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Are Affected by Metformin Treatment

Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
Pacific Northwest Research Institute, Seattle, WA 98103, USA
Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Science, University of Copenhagen, 1017 Copenhagen, Denmark
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(5), 617;
Received: 19 April 2019 / Revised: 1 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 May 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Type 2 Diabetes: Update on Pathophysiology and Treatment)
PDF [3672 KB, uploaded 7 May 2019]


Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) in circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs), have emerged as a source of potential biomarkers for various pathophysiological conditions, including metabolic disorders such as diabetes. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is the most prevalent form of diabetes in the USA, with 30 million diagnosed patients. Identifying miRNA biomarkers that can be used to assess response to glucose lowering treatments would be useful. Using patient plasma samples from a subset of the Danish Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract (MetaHIT) cohort, we characterized miRNAs from whole plasma, plasma-derived EVs, and EV-depleted plasma by small RNA-sequencing to identify T2DM associated miRNAs. We identified several miRNAs that exhibited concentration changes between controls and non-metformin treated T2DM patients and we validated a subset of these by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The results showed that the concentrations of many T2DM-affected miRNAs in EV (but not in whole or EV-depleted plasma) decreased to levels close to those of healthy controls following metformin treatment. Among other potential uses of these differentially expressed miRNAs, some might be useful in assessing the response to metformin in T2DM patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: microRNAs; extracellular vesicles; type 2 diabetes; metformin microRNAs; extracellular vesicles; type 2 diabetes; metformin

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ghai, V.; Kim, T.-K.; Etheridge, A.; Nielsen, T.; Hansen, T.; Pedersen, O.; Galas, D.; Wang, K. Extracellular Vesicle Encapsulated MicroRNAs in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Are Affected by Metformin Treatment. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 617.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
J. Clin. Med. EISSN 2077-0383 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top