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Extracellular Vesicle Encapsulated MicroRNAs in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Are Affected by Metformin Treatment

1
Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
2
Pacific Northwest Research Institute, Seattle, WA 98103, USA
3
Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Science, University of Copenhagen, 1017 Copenhagen, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(5), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8050617
Received: 19 April 2019 / Revised: 1 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 May 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Type 2 Diabetes: Update on Pathophysiology and Treatment)
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Abstract

Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) in circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs), have emerged as a source of potential biomarkers for various pathophysiological conditions, including metabolic disorders such as diabetes. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is the most prevalent form of diabetes in the USA, with 30 million diagnosed patients. Identifying miRNA biomarkers that can be used to assess response to glucose lowering treatments would be useful. Using patient plasma samples from a subset of the Danish Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract (MetaHIT) cohort, we characterized miRNAs from whole plasma, plasma-derived EVs, and EV-depleted plasma by small RNA-sequencing to identify T2DM associated miRNAs. We identified several miRNAs that exhibited concentration changes between controls and non-metformin treated T2DM patients and we validated a subset of these by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The results showed that the concentrations of many T2DM-affected miRNAs in EV (but not in whole or EV-depleted plasma) decreased to levels close to those of healthy controls following metformin treatment. Among other potential uses of these differentially expressed miRNAs, some might be useful in assessing the response to metformin in T2DM patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: microRNAs; extracellular vesicles; type 2 diabetes; metformin microRNAs; extracellular vesicles; type 2 diabetes; metformin
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Ghai, V.; Kim, T.-K.; Etheridge, A.; Nielsen, T.; Hansen, T.; Pedersen, O.; Galas, D.; Wang, K. Extracellular Vesicle Encapsulated MicroRNAs in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Are Affected by Metformin Treatment. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 617.

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