Next Article in Journal
Disulfiram (Antabuse) Activates ROS-Dependent ER Stress and Apoptosis in Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Previous Article in Journal
Low-Dose Aspirin for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetic Individuals: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Control Trials and Trial Sequential Analysis
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Cardiovascular Health Metrics in the Development and Regression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cohort Study

1
Center for Cohort Studies, Total Healthcare Center, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 04514, Korea
2
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 03181, Korea
3
Department of Clinical Research Design & Evaluation, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 06351, Korea
4
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 03181, Korea
5
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 03181, Korea
6
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea
7
Department of Family Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 03181, Korea
8
Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK
9
Nutrition and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
10
National Institute for Health Research Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospital Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(5), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8050610
Received: 8 April 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 1 May 2019 / Published: 6 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology)
  |  
PDF [688 KB, uploaded 6 May 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Cardiovascular Health (CVH) metrics scores are associated with cardiovascular disease but whether CVH scores are associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is uncertain. Our aim was to investigate associations between CVH scores and development or regression of NAFLD. A cohort study was performed in Korean adults who underwent a comprehensive health examination. The CVH metrics were defined according to the American Heart Association Life’s Simple 7 metrics, ranging from 0 (all metrics considered unhealthy) to 7 (all metrics considered healthy). Fatty liver was diagnosed by ultrasound, and liver fibrosis assessed using NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS). Among 93,500 participants without NAFLD or fibrosis at baseline, 15,899 developed NAFLD, and 998 developed NAFLD plus intermediate/high NFS. Healthy CVH metrics were inversely associated with NAFLD and also NAFLD with fibrosis. In time-dependent models after updating the CVH score and confounders as time-varying covariate, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence intervals) for incident NAFLD plus intermediate/high NFS participants with CVH metrics score 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6–7 to those with score 0–1 were 0.86 (0.59–1.25), 0.51 (0.36–0.73), 0.44 (0.31–0.62), 0.20 (0.14–0.29) and 0.09 (0.05–0.14), respectively. Regression of NAFLD occurred in 9742/37,517 participants who had NAFLD at baseline with positive association with CVH metrics. Higher CVH scores were significantly associated with both (a) decreased incidence of NAFLD, and (b) regression of existing NAFLD. Promoting adherence to ideal CVH metrics can be expected to reduce the burden of NAFLD as well as cardiovascular disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; Hepatic fibrosis; Cardiovascular health metrics; cohort study Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; Hepatic fibrosis; Cardiovascular health metrics; cohort study
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Jang, E.-H.; Chang, Y.; Ryu, S.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.H.; Sung, K.-C.; Cho, Y.K.; Lee, S.-J.; Shin, H.; Wild, S.H.; Byrne, C.D. Cardiovascular Health Metrics in the Development and Regression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cohort Study. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 610.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
J. Clin. Med. EISSN 2077-0383 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top