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J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(4), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8040452

Faecal Microbiota Are Related to Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion in Overweight or Obese Adults

1
Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Diabetes and Vascular Medicine Unit, Monash Health, Clayton 3168, Australia
2
Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Clayton 3168, Australia
3
School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia 4072, Australia
4
Endocrinology department and Mater Research, Mater Hospital, South Brisbane 4101, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 February 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Type 2 Diabetes: Update on Pathophysiology and Treatment)
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Abstract

Emerging evidence suggests a role for the gut microbiota in glucose metabolism and diabetes. Few studies have examined the associations between the faecal microbiome and insulin sensitivity and secretion using gold-standard methods in high-risk populations prior to diabetes onset. We investigated the relationships between faecal microbiota composition (16S rRNA sequencing) and gold-standard measures of insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp) and insulin secretion (intravenous glucose tolerance test) in 38 overweight or obese otherwise healthy individuals. Genus Clostridium was positively associated with insulin sensitivity, and genera Dialister and Phascolarctobacterium were related to both insulin sensitivity and secretion. Insulin sensitivity was associated with a higher abundance of Phascolarctobacterium and lower abundance of Dialister. Those with higher insulin secretion had a higher abundance of Dialister and lower abundance of Bifidobacterium, compared to those with lower insulin secretion. Body mass index (BMI) was positively correlated with Streptococcus abundance whereas Coprococcus abundance was negatively correlated to BMI and percent body fat. These results suggest that faecal microbiota is related to insulin sensitivity and secretion in overweight or obese adults. These correlations are distinct although partially overlapping, suggesting different pathophysiological pathways. Our findings can inform future trials aiming to manipulate gut microbiome to improve insulin sensitivity and secretion and prevent type 2 diabetes. View Full-Text
Keywords: faecal microbiota; body mass index; percent body fat; insulin secretion; insulin sensitivity; hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp faecal microbiota; body mass index; percent body fat; insulin secretion; insulin sensitivity; hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp
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Naderpoor, N.; Mousa, A.; Gomez-Arango, L.F.; Barrett, H.L.; Dekker Nitert, M.; de Courten, B. Faecal Microbiota Are Related to Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion in Overweight or Obese Adults. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 452.

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