Influenza viruses, since time immemorial, have been the major respiratory pathogen known to infect a wide variety of animals, birds and reptiles with established lineages. They belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae
and cause acute respiratory illness often during local outbreaks or seasonal epidemics and occasionally during pandemics. Recent studies have identified a new genus within the Orthomyxoviridae
family. This newly identified pathogen, D/swine/Oklahoma/1334/2011 (D/OK), first identified in pigs with influenza-like illness was classified as the influenza D virus (IDV) which is distantly related to the previously characterized human influenza C virus. Several other back-to-back studies soon suggested cattle as the natural reservoir and possible involvement of IDV in the bovine respiratory disease complex was established. Not much is known about its likelihood to cause disease in humans, but it definitely poses a potential threat as an emerging pathogen in cattle-workers. Here, we review the evolution, epidemiology, virology and pathobiology of influenza D virus and the possibility of transmission among various hosts and potential to cause human disease.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited