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Emerging Influenza D Virus Threat: What We Know so Far!

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL 60064, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(2), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8020192
Received: 26 December 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 5 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Diseases)
Influenza viruses, since time immemorial, have been the major respiratory pathogen known to infect a wide variety of animals, birds and reptiles with established lineages. They belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae and cause acute respiratory illness often during local outbreaks or seasonal epidemics and occasionally during pandemics. Recent studies have identified a new genus within the Orthomyxoviridae family. This newly identified pathogen, D/swine/Oklahoma/1334/2011 (D/OK), first identified in pigs with influenza-like illness was classified as the influenza D virus (IDV) which is distantly related to the previously characterized human influenza C virus. Several other back-to-back studies soon suggested cattle as the natural reservoir and possible involvement of IDV in the bovine respiratory disease complex was established. Not much is known about its likelihood to cause disease in humans, but it definitely poses a potential threat as an emerging pathogen in cattle-workers. Here, we review the evolution, epidemiology, virology and pathobiology of influenza D virus and the possibility of transmission among various hosts and potential to cause human disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: influenza; influenza A virus (IAV); influenza B virus (IBV); influenza C virus (ICV); influenza D virus (IDV); emerging pathogen; epidemic; pandemic; respiratory illness; influenza-like illness influenza; influenza A virus (IAV); influenza B virus (IBV); influenza C virus (ICV); influenza D virus (IDV); emerging pathogen; epidemic; pandemic; respiratory illness; influenza-like illness
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Asha, K.; Kumar, B. Emerging Influenza D Virus Threat: What We Know so Far! J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 192.

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