Next Article in Journal
A Novel Osteotomy Preparation Technique to Preserve Implant Site Viability and Enhance Osteogenesis
Previous Article in Journal
Artificial Intelligence vs. Natural Stupidity: Evaluating AI Readiness for the Vietnamese Medical Information System
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(2), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8020169

Lower Plasma Magnesium, Measured by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, is Associated with Increased Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Women: Results from a Dutch Prospective Cohort Study

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700RB Groningen, The Netherlands
2
Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700RB Groningen, The Netherlands
3
Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands
4
Magnesium Health Institute, 9712 NT Groningen, The Netherlands
5
Nedmag B.V., 9640 AE Veendam, The Netherlands
6
Laboratory Corporation of America® Holdings (LabCorp), Morrisville, NC 27560, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 27 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Nuclear Medicine & Radiology)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3334 KB, uploaded 15 February 2019]   |  
  |   Review Reports

Abstract

Background: Low circulating magnesium (Mg) is associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to study the performance of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based assay that quantifies ionized Mg in EDTA plasma samples and prospectively investigate the association of Mg with the risk of T2DM. Methods: The analytic performance of an NMR-based assay for measuring plasma Mg was evaluated. We studied 5747 subjects free of T2DM at baseline in the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease (PREVEND) study. Results: Passing–Bablok regression analysis, comparing NMR-measured ionized Mg with total Mg measured by the Roche colorimetric assay, produced a correlation of r = 0.90, with a slope of 1.08 (95% CI: 1.00–1.13) and an intercept of 0.02 (95% CI: −0.02–0.08). During a median follow-up period of 11.2 (IQR: 7.7–12.0) years, 289 (5.0%) participants developed T2DM. The association of NMR-measured ionized Mg with T2DM risk was modified by sex (Pinteraction = 0.007). In women, we found an inverse association between Mg and the risk of developing T2DM, independent of adjustment for potential confounders (HR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.20–2.70). In men, we found no association between Mg and the risk of developing T2DM (HR: 0.90; 95%: 0.67–1.21). Conclusion: Lower NMR-measured plasma ionized Mg was independently associated with a higher risk of developing T2DM in women, but not in men. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnesium; diabetes; nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy magnesium; diabetes; nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Schutten, J.C.; Gomes-Neto, A.W.; Navis, G.; Gansevoort, R.T.; Dullaart, R.P.F.; Kootstra-Ros, J.E.; Danel, R.M.; Goorman, F.; Gans, R.O.B.; de Borst, M.H.; Jeyarajah, E.J.; Shalaurova, I.; Otvos, J.D.; Connelly, M.A.; Bakker, S.J.L. Lower Plasma Magnesium, Measured by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, is Associated with Increased Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Women: Results from a Dutch Prospective Cohort Study. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 169.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
J. Clin. Med. EISSN 2077-0383 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top