Next Article in Journal
Testicular Function of Childhood Cancer Survivors: Who Is Worse?
Next Article in Special Issue
The Genetics of Pituitary Adenomas
Previous Article in Journal
Management of Refeeding Syndrome in Medical Inpatients
Previous Article in Special Issue
Management of Hypopituitarism


by 1,2,3, 1,2,3 and 1,2,3,*
Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Birmingham Health Partners, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK
Department of Endocrinology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(12), 2203;
Received: 20 November 2019 / Revised: 25 November 2019 / Accepted: 2 December 2019 / Published: 13 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Diagnosis and Therapy of Pituitary Disorders)
Hyperprolactinaemia is one of the most common problems in clinical endocrinology. It relates with various aetiologies (physiological, pharmacological, pathological), the clarification of which requires careful history taking and clinical assessment. Analytical issues (presence of macroprolactin or of the hook effect) need to be taken into account when interpreting the prolactin values. Medications and sellar/parasellar masses (prolactin secreting or acting through “stalk effect”) are the most common causes of pathological hyperprolactinaemia. Hypogonadism and galactorrhoea are well-recognized manifestations of prolactin excess, although its implications on bone health, metabolism and immune system are also expanding. Treatment mainly aims at restoration and maintenance of normal gonadal function/fertility, and prevention of osteoporosis; further specific management strategies depend on the underlying cause. In this review, we provide an update on the diagnostic and management approaches for the patient with hyperprolactinaemia and on the current data looking at the impact of high prolactin on metabolism, cardiovascular and immune systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: prolactin; hyperprolactinaemia; prolactinoma; antipsychotics; hypogonadism; dopamine agonists prolactin; hyperprolactinaemia; prolactinoma; antipsychotics; hypogonadism; dopamine agonists
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Samperi, I.; Lithgow, K.; Karavitaki, N. Hyperprolactinaemia. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 2203.

AMA Style

Samperi I, Lithgow K, Karavitaki N. Hyperprolactinaemia. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019; 8(12):2203.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Samperi, Irene, Kirstie Lithgow, and Niki Karavitaki. 2019. "Hyperprolactinaemia" Journal of Clinical Medicine 8, no. 12: 2203.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop