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Biomarkers of Vascular Injury and Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study, Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 581, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
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Faculty of Medicine, University Medicine Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 672, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
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Institute for Evidence in Medicine, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Breisacher Straße 153, 79110 Freiburg, Germany
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Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Breisacher Straße 153, 79110 Freiburg, Germany
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Department of Preventive Oncology, National Centre for Tumor Diseases, Im Neuenheimer Feld 460, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
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Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 581, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
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Institute of Transfusion Medicine and Immunology, University Medicine Heidelberg, Friedrich-Ebert-Straße 107, 68167 Mannheim, Germany
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German Red Cross Blood Service Baden-Württemberg-Hessen, Friedrich-Ebert-Straße 107, D-68167 Mannheim, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(12), 2075; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8122075
Received: 28 October 2019 / Revised: 18 November 2019 / Accepted: 25 November 2019 / Published: 27 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Endocrinology & Metabolism)
Data on biomarkers of vascular injury and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk from prospective studies are lacking. We evaluated seven biomarkers of vascular injury in relation to T2D. Additionally, a meta-analysis was performed. From the EPIC–Heidelberg cohort, 2224 participants were followed-up from baseline for 16 (median) years. E-Selectin, P-Selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (ICAM3), thrombomodulin, thrombopoietin, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and fibrinogen levels were measured in baseline blood samples. The systematic review and meta-analysis included prospective studies identified through MEDLINE and Web of Science that investigated the association between mentioned biomarkers and T2D. The study population included 55% women, median age was 50 years, and 163 developed T2D. ICAM3 was associated with lower T2D risk (fully adjusted HRhighest vs. lowest tertile 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.91)), but no other studies on ICAM3 were identified. Overall, fifteen studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis (6,171 cases). E-Selectin was associated with higher T2D risk HRper SD: 1.34 (95% CI: 1.16, 1.54; I2 = 63%, n = 9 studies), while thrombomodulin was associated with lower risk HRper SD: 0.82 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.95; I2 = 0%, n = 2 studies). In the EPIC–Heidelberg, ICAM3 was associated with lower T2D risk. The meta-analysis showed a consistent positive association between E-Selectin and T2D. It was also suggestive of an inverse association between thrombomodulin and T2D, although further studies are needed to corroborate this finding. View Full-Text
Keywords: Epidemiology; Type 2 Diabetes; E-Selectin; P-Selectin; ICAM3; thrombomodulin; vascular injury biomarkers Epidemiology; Type 2 Diabetes; E-Selectin; P-Selectin; ICAM3; thrombomodulin; vascular injury biomarkers
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Pletsch-Borba, L.; Watzinger, C.; Turzanski Fortner, R.; Katzke, V.; Schwingshackl, L.; Sowah, S.A.; Hüsing, A.; Johnson, T.; Groß, M.-L.; González Maldonado, S.; Hoffmeister, M.; Bugert, P.; Kaaks, R.; Grafetstätter, M.; Kühn, T. Biomarkers of Vascular Injury and Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study, Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 2075.

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