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Open AccessReview

Correlations between Molecular Landscape and Sonographic Image of Different Variants of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

1
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Medical University of Lodz, 93-338 Lodz, Poland
2
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital—Research Institute, 93-338 Lodz; Poland
3
Chair and Department of Oncological Endocrinology, Medical University of Lodz, 90-752 Lodz, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1916; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111916
Received: 24 September 2019 / Revised: 5 November 2019 / Accepted: 6 November 2019 / Published: 8 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging and Imaging-Based Management of Thyroid Nodules)
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), the most common thyroid cancer, is predominantly driven by mutations in BRAF (primarily p. V600E) and RAS oncogenes. Ultrasound (US) examination provides significant diagnostic data in the management of thyroid nodules, as many sonographic features of thyroid lesions are correlated with the potential risk of thyroid carcinoma. The aim of the study was to analyze the current literature in regard to the potential associations between genetic landscape and sonographic features of PTC. Based on the current literature, sonographic features of PTCs correlate with their molecular drivers, particularly between tumors harboring BRAFV600E versus activating RAS mutations, although many of these findings appear to be dependent on the tumor variant. Suspicious US findings, such as hypoechogenicity, spiculated/microlobulated margins, non-parallel orientation/taller-than-wide shape, and the presence of microcalcifications, are typical for PTC positive for BRAFV600E mutations. On the contrary, tumors with RAS mutations are most frequently hypo- or isoechoic and ovoid-to-round in shape, with smooth margins and without calcifications. There are also some US features typical for PTCs harboring other mutations, including BRAFK601E, RET/PTC rearrangements, PAX8-PPARγ, CTNNB1, and APC. However, further research is necessary, as some rare PTC variants still cannot be reliably analyzed due to the scarce published data. View Full-Text
Keywords: papillary thyroid carcinoma; ultrasound; sonographic features; BRAFV600E mutations; RAS mutation; genetic drivers; classic variant; follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma; ultrasound; sonographic features; BRAFV600E mutations; RAS mutation; genetic drivers; classic variant; follicular variant
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Lewiński, A.; Adamczewski, Z.; Zygmunt, A.; Markuszewski, L.; Karbownik-Lewińska, M.; Stasiak, M. Correlations between Molecular Landscape and Sonographic Image of Different Variants of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 1916.

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