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Open AccessArticle

Glutathione Metabolism, Mitochondria Activity, and Nitrosative Stress in Patients Treated for Mandible Fractures

1
Department of Maxillofacial and Plastic Surgery, Medical University of Bialystok, Sklodowskiej M.C. 24, 15-274 Bialystok, Poland
2
Department of Physiology, Medical University of Bialystok, Mickiewicza 2c Str., 15-233 Bialystok, Poland
3
Department of Oral Surgery, Medical University of Bialystok, Sklodowskiej M.C. 24a Str., 15-276 Bialystok, Poland
4
Clinical Research Centre, Medical University of Bialystok, Sklodowskiej M.C. 24a Str., 15-276 Bialystok, Poland
5
Department of Material and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Bialystok University of Technology, 15-351 Bialystok, Poland
6
Department of Emergency Medicine and Disasters, Medical University of Bialystok, 37 Szpitalna Street, 15-767 Bialystok, Poland
7
Department of Conservative Dentistry, Medical University of Bialystok, Sklodowskiej M.C. 24a Str., 15-276 Bialystok, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(1), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8010127
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 19 January 2019 / Accepted: 20 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Orthopedics)
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of titanium bone fixations on mitochondrial activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione metabolism, and selected markers of oxidative/nitrosative stress in the periosteum-like tissue of patients treated with mandible fractures. The study group consisted of 30 patients with bilateral fractures of the mandible body eligible for surgical treatment. Our study is the first one that indicates disturbances of mitochondrial activity as well as a higher production of ROS in the periosteum-like tissue covering titanium fixations of the mandible. We also found significantly higher levels of reduced glutathione and enhanced activity of glutathione reductase in the periosteum homogenates of patients in the study group compared to the control group. Levels of nitrosative (S-nitrosothiols, peroxynitrite, nitrotyrosine) and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, protein carbonyls, dityrosine, kynurenine, and N-formylkynurenine) were statistically elevated in periosteum-like tissue covering titanium fixations. Although exposure to titanium fixations induces local antioxidant mechanisms, patients suffer oxidative damage, and in the periosteum-like tissue the phenomenon of metallosis was observed. Titanium implants cause oxidative/nitrosative stress as well as disturbances in mitochondrial activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: titanium fixations; oxidative stress; nitrosative stress; metallosis titanium fixations; oxidative stress; nitrosative stress; metallosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Borys, J.; Maciejczyk, M.; Antonowicz, B.; Krętowski, A.; Sidun, J.; Domel, E.; Dąbrowski, J.R.; Ładny, J.R.; Morawska, K.; Zalewska, A. Glutathione Metabolism, Mitochondria Activity, and Nitrosative Stress in Patients Treated for Mandible Fractures. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 127.

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