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J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(9), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7090270

Body Fatness and Cardiovascular Health in Newborn Infants

1
Boden Institute of Obesity, Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
2
Faculty of Medicine and Health, Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
3
Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Missenden Road, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia
4
Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
5
School of Medical Sciences & Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract

Birth weight is associated with cardiovascular disease, with those at both ends of the spectrum at increased risk. However, birth weight is a crude surrogate of fetal growth. Measures of body composition may more accurately identify high risk infants. We aimed to determine whether aortic wall thickening, cardiac autonomic control, and cardiac structure/function differ in newborns with high or low body fatness compared to those with average body fatness. 189 healthy singleton term born neonates were recruited and stratified by body fat percentiles (sex and gestation-specific). Infants with low body fat had higher aortic intima-media thickness (43 µm (95% confidence interval (CI) 7, 78), p = 0.02), lower heart rate variability (log total power, −0.5 (95% CI −0.8, −0.1), p = 0.008), and thicker ventricular walls (posterior wall thickness, 3.1 mm (95% CI 1.6, 4.6), p < 0.001) compared to infants with average body fatness. Infants with high body fat showed no differences in aortic intima-media thickness (−2 µm (95% CI −37, 33), p = 0.91) or cardiac structure compared to average body fatness, although stroke volume (−0.3 mL/kg (95% CI −0.6, −0.0), p = 0.003) and heart rate variability were lower (log total power, −0.8 (95% CI −1.1, −0.5), p < 0.001). The non-linear association of body fatness with heart rate variability was independent of birth weight. Infants born with low or high body fat have altered markers of cardiovascular health. Assessment of body fatness alongside birth weight may assist in identifying high risk individuals. View Full-Text
Keywords: newborn body fatness; cardiovascular disease; aortic intima-media thickness; autonomic function; cardiac structure; cardiac function newborn body fatness; cardiovascular disease; aortic intima-media thickness; autonomic function; cardiac structure; cardiac function
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Dissanayake, H.U.; McMullan, R.L.; Kong, Y.; Caterson, I.D.; Celermajer, D.S.; Phang, M.; Raynes-Greenow, C.; Polson, J.W.; Gordon, A.; Skilton, M.R. Body Fatness and Cardiovascular Health in Newborn Infants. J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7, 270.

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