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Open AccessArticle

Calcification Patterns in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma are Associated with Changes in Thyroid Hormones and Coronary Artery Calcification

1
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea
2
Department of Hospital Pathology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(8), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7080183
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 26 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology)
Recent studies suggested that a lower serum thyroid hormone level is associated with more vascular calcification. However, it has been rarely evaluated whether lower thyroid hormone levels affect the calcification of thyroid cancer and there is a relationship between calcification patterns of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and coronary artery calcification (CAC). The study was divided into two groups: First, we retrospectively reviewed 182 PTC patients and examined the correlation between PTC calcification patterns and CAC by coronary computed tomography (CT). Second, the correlation between the calcification pattern of PTC and thyroid hormone concentration was investigated (n = 354). The calcification pattern of PTC was evaluated by thyroid ultrasonography and classified into four groups: no-calcification, microcalcification, macrocalcification, and mixed-calcification. In PTC patients with microcalcification and mixed calcification, more CAC was observed and coronary calcium score (CCS) was higher. Lower free T4 and higher thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were associated with microcalcification and mixed calcification, not with macrocalcification and no calcification. PTC with microcalcification and mixed calcification showed more aggressive phenotypes like lymph node metastasis and more advanced TNM (tumor, node, and metastasis) stage than those with no calcification and macrocalcification. Calcification patterns of PTC showed close association with thyroid hormone levels and CAC. Further research is needed to determine how these findings are related to cardiovascular risk and disease-specific mortality. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcification; papillary thyroid carcinoma; thyroid hormones; coronary artery calcification; SPINA-GT; TSH index calcification; papillary thyroid carcinoma; thyroid hormones; coronary artery calcification; SPINA-GT; TSH index
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Ha, J.; Lee, J.; Jo, K.; Han, J.-S.; Kim, M.-H.; Jung, C.K.; Kang, M.I.; Cha, B.Y.; Lim, D.-J. Calcification Patterns in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma are Associated with Changes in Thyroid Hormones and Coronary Artery Calcification. J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7, 183.

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