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Diagnostic Criteria and Clinical Outcomes in Sarcopenia Research: A Literature Review

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, 100 Butler Drive, Providence, RI 02906, USA
Department of Orthopaedics, Division of Spine Surgery—Adult Spinal Deformity Service, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI 02906, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(4), 70;
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 8 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia in Older Adults)
By the sixth decade of life, nearly one quarter of the population has substantial muscle atrophy, or sarcopenia. Despite the creation of a standardized definition of sarcopenia by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, variability may exist in the diagnostic criteria utilized for clinical sarcopenia research. The primary objectives of this review were to characterize diagnostic criteria used for measurement of sarcopenia in original studies, and to describe associations between sarcopenia and important clinical outcomes. We performed a literature review of the term “sarcopenia” in PubMed. Inclusion criteria were English language, original data, a clear and specific definition for diagnosing sarcopenia, and the analysis of sarcopenia’s effect on a clinical outcome. A total of 283 studies met inclusion criteria. More than half of the included sarcopenia investigations were level IV studies (54.1%), while 43.1% provided level II evidence. Under one third (27.6%) of studies examined sarcopenia with regard to surgical outcomes. In terms of diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia, 264 (93.3%) studies used measures of skeletal muscle mass, with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) being the most common modality (43.6%). Sarcopenia was found to be a consistent predictor of chronic disease progression, all-cause mortality, poorer functional outcomes, and postoperative complications. In conclusion, there is substantial evidence that sarcopenia impacts both medical and surgical outcomes. However, current research has utilized heterogeneous diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia. Further efforts to standardize the modalities used to diagnose sarcopenia in clinical research and practice will help strengthen our ability to study this important phenomenon. View Full-Text
Keywords: sarcopenia; muscle mass; atrophy; aging; review sarcopenia; muscle mass; atrophy; aging; review
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MDPI and ACS Style

Han, A.; Bokshan, S.L.; Marcaccio, S.E.; DePasse, J.M.; Daniels, A.H. Diagnostic Criteria and Clinical Outcomes in Sarcopenia Research: A Literature Review. J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7, 70.

AMA Style

Han A, Bokshan SL, Marcaccio SE, DePasse JM, Daniels AH. Diagnostic Criteria and Clinical Outcomes in Sarcopenia Research: A Literature Review. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2018; 7(4):70.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Han, Alex; Bokshan, Steven L.; Marcaccio, Stephen E.; DePasse, J. M.; Daniels, Alan H. 2018. "Diagnostic Criteria and Clinical Outcomes in Sarcopenia Research: A Literature Review" J. Clin. Med. 7, no. 4: 70.

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