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J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(11), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7110434

Aromatherapy for Managing Pain in Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Systematic Review of Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials

1
Clinical Medicine Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon 34054, Korea
2
Herbal Medicine Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon 34054, Korea
3
Public Health & Research Development, National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh 11662, Saudi Arabia
4
Department of Nursing, Howon University, Gusan 54058, Korea
5
Department of Nursing, Chodang University, Muan-gun 58530, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 September 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 10 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Anesthesiology)
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Abstract

Aromatherapy, the therapeutic use of essential oils, is often used to reduce pain in primary dysmenorrhea. Eleven databases, including four English (PubMed, AMED, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library) and seven Korean medical databases, were searched from inception through August 2018 without restrictions on publication language. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing aromatherapy for pain reduction in primary dysmenorrhea were considered. Data extraction and risk-of-bias assessments were performed by two independent reviewers. All of the trials reported superior effects of aromatherapy for pain reduction compared to placebo (n = 1787, standard mean difference (SMD): −0.91, 95% CI: −1.17 to −0.64, p < 0.00001) with high heterogeneity (I2 = 88%). A sub-analysis for inhalational aromatherapy for the alleviation of pain also showed superior effects compared to placebo (n = 704, SMD: −1.02, 95% CI: −1.59 to −0.44, p = 0.0001, I2 = 95%). With regard to aromatherapy massage, the pooled results of 11 studies showed favorable effects of aromatherapy massage on pain reduction compared to placebo aromatherapy massage (n = 793, SMD: −0.87, 95% CI: −1.14 to −0.60, p < 0.00001, I2 = 70%). Oral aromatherapy had superior effects compared to placebo (n = 290, SMD: −0.61, 95% CI: −0.91 to −0.30, p < 0.0001, I2 = 0%). In conclusion, our systemic review provides a moderate level of evidence on the superiority of aromatherapy (inhalational, massage, or oral use) for pain reduction over placebo in primary dysmenorrhea. View Full-Text
Keywords: aromatherapy; essential oil; inhalation; pain; dysmenorrhea; systematic review; meta-analysis aromatherapy; essential oil; inhalation; pain; dysmenorrhea; systematic review; meta-analysis
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Lee, M.S.; Lee, H.W.; Khalil, M.; Lim, H.S.; Lim, H.-J. Aromatherapy for Managing Pain in Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Systematic Review of Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials. J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7, 434.

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